|Water Science and Engineering 2010, 3(1) 1-13 DOI: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2010.01.001 ISSN: 1674-2370 CN: 32-1785/TV|
|Current Issue | Archive | Search [Print] [Close]|
Application of GIS-based SCS-CN method in West Bank catchments, Palestine
Sameer SHADEED, Mohammad ALMASRI
Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, An-Najah National University, P. O. Box 7,
Among the most basic challenges of hydrology are the prediction and quantification of catchment surface runoff. The runoff curve number (CN) is a key factor in determining runoff in the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) based hydrologic modeling method. The traditional SCS-CN method for calculating the composite curve number is very tedious and consumes a major portion of the hydrologic modeling time. Therefore, geographic information systems (GIS) are now being used in combination with the SCS-CN method. This paper assesses the modeling of flow in West Bank catchments using the GIS-based SCS-CN method. The West Bank, Palestine, is characterized as an arid to semi-arid region with annual rainfall depths ranging between 100 mm in the vicinity of the Jordan River to 700 mm in the mountains extending across the central parts of the region. The estimated composite curve number for the entire West Bank is about 50 assuming dry conditions. This paper clearly demonstrates that the integration of GIS with the SCS-CN method provides a powerful tool for estimating runoff volumes in West Bank catchments, representing arid to semi-arid catchments of Palestine.
|Keywords： GIS SCS-CN method surface runoff West Bank catchments arid and semi- arid regions|
|Received 2010-04-01 Revised Online: 2010-04-02|
This work was supported by the GLOWA-JR Project of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).
|Corresponding Authors: Sameer SHADEED|
Al-Nubani, N. I. 2000. Rainfall-Runoff Process and Rainfall Analysis for Nablus Basin. M. S. Dissertation. Nablus: An-Najah National University.
Applied Research Institute, Jerusalem (ARIJ). 2000. Overview of the Palestinian Environment, Agenda-21, Part 2. Bethlehem, West Bank: ARIJ Main Office.
Arnold, J. G., Williams, J. R., Srinivasan, R., and King, K. W. 1996. SWAT: Soil and Water Assessment Tool. Temple: Grassland, Soil & Water Research Laboratory, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Bellal, M., Sillen, X., and Zeck, Y. 1996. Coupling GIS with a distributed hydrological model for studying the effect of various urban planning options on rainfall-runoff relationship in urbanized watersheds. Kovar, K., and Nachtnebel, H. P., eds.,Hydro GIS 96: Application of GIS in Hydrology and Water Resources Management (Proceedings of the Vienna Conference), 99-106. Vienna: International Association of Hydrological Sciences.
Bonta, J. V. 1997. Determination of watershed curve number using derived distributions. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering,123(1), 28-36. [doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(1997)123:1(28)]
Chow, V. T, Maidment, D. R., and Mays, L. W. 1988. Applied Hydrology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Grove, M., Harbor, J., and Engel, B. 1998. Composite vs. distributed curve numbers: Effects on estimates of storm runoff depths. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 34(5), 1015-1023.[doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.1998.tb04150.x]
Hawkins, R. H. 1993. Asymptotic determination of runoff curve numbers from data. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 119(2), 334-345. [doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(1993)119:2(334)]
Hjelmfelt, A. T. 1991. Investigation of curve number procedure. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 117(6), 725-737. [doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1991)117:6(725)]
Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (MOPIC). 1996. Valuable Agricultural Land in the West Bank Governorate Emergency Natural Resources Protection Plan: Directorate for Urban and Rural Planning. Palestine: General Directorate of the Ministry.
Mishra, S. K., Singh, V. P, Sansalone, J. J., and Aravamuthan, V. 2003. A modified SCS-CN method: Characterization and testing. Water Resources Management, 17(1), 37-68. [doi:10.1023/A:1023099005 944]
Mishra, S. K., and Singh, V. P. 2004. Validity and extension of the SCS-CN method for computing infiltration and rainfall-excess rates. Hydrological Processes,18(17), 3323-3345. [doi:10.1002/hyp.1223]
Mishra, S. K., Sahu, R. K, Eldho, T. I., and Jain, M. K. 2006. An improved Ia-S relation incorporating antecedent moisture in SCS-CN methodology. Water Resources Management, 20(5), 643-660. [doi:10.1007/s11269-005-9000-4]
Moglen, G. E. 2000. Effect of orientation of spatially distributed curve numbers in runoff calculations. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 36(6), 1391-1400. [doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.2000.tb 05734.x]
Ponce, V. M., and Hawkins, R. H. 1996. Runoff curve number: Has it reached maturity? Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 1(1), 11-19. [doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1084-0699(1996)1:1(11)]
Rofe and Raffety Consulting Engineers. 1965. Nablus District Water Resources Survey: Geographical and Hydrological Report. Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Central Water Authority.
Schulze, R. E., Schmidt, E. J., and Smithers, J. C. 1992. SCS-SA User Manual PC Based SCS Design Flood Estimates for Small Catchments in Southern Africa. Pietermaritzburg:Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Natal.
Shadeed, S. 2008. Up To Date Hydrological Modeling in Arid and Semi-arid Catchment, the Case of Faria Catchment, West Bank, Palestine. Ph. D. Dissertation. Freiburg: Freiburg University.
Shrestha, M. N. 2003. Spatially distributed hydrological modeling considering land-use changes using remote sensing and GIS. Map Asia Conference.
Soil Conservation Service (SCS). 1985. Hydrology, National Engineering Handbook. Washington, D. C: Soil Conservation Service, USDA.
Soil Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture (SCS-USDA). 1986. Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office.
United Nation Environment Programme (UNEP). 2003. Desk Study on the Environment in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Nairobi.
Williams, J. R. 1995. The EPIC model. Singh, V. P., ed., Computer Models of Watershed Hydrology. CO:Water Resources Publications.
Xu, A. L. 2006. A new curve number calculation approach using GIS technology. ESRI 26th International User Conference on Water Resources.
Young, R. A., Onstad, C. A., Bosch, D. D., and Anderson, W. P. 1987. AGNPS, Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Model: A Watershed Analysis Tool. Washington, D. C.: USDA-ARS.
Yu, B. F. 1998. Theoretical justification of SCS method for runoff estimation. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 124(6), 306-310. [doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(1998)124:6(306)]
Zhan, X. Y., and Huang, M. L. 2004. ArcCN-Runoff: An ArcGIS tool for generating curve number and runoff maps. Environmental Modeling & Software, 19, 875-879. [doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2004.03.001]
|Copyright by Water Science and Engineering|