Water Science and Engineering 2010, 3(1) 47-55 DOI:   10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2010.01.005  ISSN: 1674-2370 CN: 32-1785/TV

Current Issue | Archive | Search                                                            [Print]   [Close]
Information and Service
This Article
Supporting info
PDF(219KB)
Reference
Service and feedback
Email this article to a colleague
Add to Bookshelf
Add to Citation Manager
Cite This Article
Email Alert
Keywords
streamflow
fluvial acoustic tomography
cross-sectional average velocity
unsteady flow
water temperature
Authors
Kiyosi KAWANISI
Arata KANEKO
Shinya NIGO
Mohammad SOLTANIASL
Mahmoud F. MAGHREBI
PubMed
Article by Kiyosi KAWANISI
Article by Arata KANEKO
Article by Shinya NIGO
Article by Mohammad SOLTANIASL
Article by Mahmoud F. MAGHREBI

New acoustic system for continuous measurement of river discharge and water temperature

Kiyosi KAWANISI*1, Arata KANEKO1, Shinya NIGO2, Mohammad SOLTANIASL3, Mahmoud F. MAGHREBI3

1. Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1, Kagamiyama,
 Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527, Japan
2. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, 2-4-36 Kitaku Sikadachou,
Okayama 700-0914, Japan
3. Civil Engineering Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P. O. Box 91775-1111, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

In many cases, river discharge is indirectly estimated from water level or streamflow velocity near the water surface. However, these methods have limited applicability. In this study, an innovative system, the fluvial acoustic tomography system (FATS), was used for continuous discharge measurement. Transducers with a central frequency of 30 kHz were installed diagonally across the river. The system’s significant functions include accurate measurement of the travel time of the transmission signal using a GPS clock and the attainment of a high signal-to-noise ratio as a result of modulation of the signal by the 10th order M-sequence. In addition, FATS is small and lightweight, and its power consumption is low. Operating in unsteady streamflow, FATS successfully measured the cross-sectional average velocity. The agreement between FATS and acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) on water discharge was satisfactory. Moreover, the temporal variation of the cross-sectional average temperature deduced from the sound speed of FATS was similar to that measured by a temperature sensor near the bank.

Keywords streamflow   fluvial acoustic tomography   cross-sectional average velocity   unsteady flow   water temperature  
Received 2010-04-01 Revised  Online: 2010-04-02 
DOI: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2010.01.005
Fund:
This work was supported by the Construction Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan (No. 31), and the River Fund (N0.19-1212-005, 21-1212-009).
Corresponding Authors: Kiyosi KAWANISI
Email: kiyosi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp
About author:

References:
Chiu, C. L., and Hsu, S. M. 2006. Probabilistic approach to modeling of velocity distributions in fluid flows. Journal of Hydrology, 316(1-4), 28-42. [doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.04. 011]
Kawanisi, K., Kaneko, A., Razaz, M., and Abe, T. 2008. Measurement of cross-sectional average velocity in a shallow tidal river with a next-generation acoustic velocity meter. Proceedings of 16th IAHR-APD Congress and 3rd Symposium of IAHR-ISHS, Vol. V: Hydraulic Structures for Water Projects,1973-1977.. Beijing: Tsinghua University.
Kawanisi, K., Watanabe, S., Kaneko, A., and Abe, T. 2009. River acoustic tomography for continuous measurement of water discharge. Proceedings of 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Underwater Acoustic Measurements: Technologies and Results, 2,613-620. Nafplion: Hellas Foundation for Research and Technology. 
Kawanisi, K., Razaz, M., Kaneko, A., and Watanabe, S. 2010a. Long-term measurement of stream flow and salinity in a tidal river by the use of the fluvial acoustic tomography system. Journal of Hydrology, 380(1-2), 74-81. [doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.10.024]
Kawanisi, K., Watanabe, S., Kaneko, A., and Abe, T. 2010b. Continuous measurement of flood flow and cross-sectional average salinity in the Ota diversion channel with fluvial acoustic tomography. Annual Journal of Hydraulic Engineering-JSCE, 54,1081-1086. (in Japanese)
Maghrebi, M. F., and Ball, J. F. 2006. New method for estimation of discharge. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 132(10), 1044-1015. [doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2006)132: 10(1044)]
Medwin, H. 1975. Speed of sound in water: A simple equation for realistic parameters. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America,58, 1318-1319. [doi:10.1121/1.380790]
Ruhl, C. A., and DeRose, J. B. 2004. Investigation of Hydroacoustic Flow-Monitoring Alternatives at the Sacramento River at Freeport, California: Results of the 2002-2004 Pilot Study, Scientific Investigation Report (2004-5172). Reston: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey.
Simon, M. K., Omura, J. K., and Levitt, B. K. 1985. Spread Spectrum Communications Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Sloat, J. V., and Gain, W. S. 1995. Application of Acoustic Velocity Meters for Gaging Discharge of Three Low-Velocity Tidal Streams in the St. John River Basin, Northeast Florida, Water-Resources Investigations Report(95-4230). Tallahassee: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey.
Wang, F., and Huang, H. 2005. Horizontal acoustic Doppler current profiler (H-ADCP) for real-time open channel flow measurement: Flow calculation model and field validation. Proceedings of 31st IAHR Congress, 319-328. Seoul: International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research. 
Zheng, H., Yamaoka, H., Gohda, N., Noguchi, H., and Kaneko, A. 1998. Design of the acoustic tomography system for velocity measurement with an application to the coastal sea. Journal of Acoustic Society of Japan (E), 19, 199-210.
Similar articles
1.Shu-fang FAN*; Min-quan FENG;Zhao LIU.Simulation of water temperature distribution in Fenhe Reservoir[J]. Water Science and Engineering, 2009,2(2): 32-42
2.Peng TIAN, Guang-ju ZHAO, Jing LI, Kun TIAN.Extreme value analysis of streamflow time series in the last half century in the Poyang Lake Basin, China[J]. Water Science and Engineering, 2011,4(2): 121-132
3.Shalamu ABUDU, Chun-liang CUI, James Phillip KING, Kaiser ABUDUKADEER.Comparison of performance of statistical models in forecasting monthly streamflow of Kizil River, China[J]. Water Science and Engineering, 2010,3(3): 269-281
4.Alphonce Chenjerayi GUZHA, Thomas Byron HARDY.Simulating streamflow and water table depth with a coupled hydrological model[J]. Water Science and Engineering, 2010,3(3): 241-256
5.pengtian.[J]. Water Science and Engineering, 0,(): 121-132

Copyright by Water Science and Engineering