Water Science and Engineering 2010, 3(3) 331-340 DOI:   10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2010.03.009  ISSN: 1674-2370 CN: 32-1785/TV

Current Issue | Archive | Search                                                            [Print]   [Close]
Information and Service
This Article
Supporting info
PDF(294KB)
Reference
Service and feedback
Email this article to a colleague
Add to Bookshelf
Add to Citation Manager
Cite This Article
Email Alert
Keywords
multi-criterion optimization
energy efficiency
water supply systems
renewable sources
CO2 emissions
Authors
HELENA M. RAMOS M.-RAMOS
FILIPE -Vieira
DIDIA -Covas
PubMed
Article by Helena M. RAMOS,M.R
Article by Filipe,.V
Article by Didia,.C

Energy efficiency in a water supply system: Energy consumption and CO2 emission

Helena M. RAMOS1,Filipe Vieira2,Didia I.C. Covas2

1. Department of Civil Engineering, IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon 1049-001, Portugal
2. CEHIDRO, IST-DECivil, Lisbon 1049-001, Portugal

Abstract

This paper presents important fundaments associated to the water/energy consumption and enhances the importance of renewable energy sources. A model of multi-criterion optimization for energy efficiency based on water and environment management policy, the preservation of the water resources, the control of water pressure and energy consumption, through a hybrid energy solution is developed and applied to a water supply system. The methodology developed includes three solutions: (i) water turbine installation in pipes where there is a need to control the pressure by pressure reducing valves, (ii) the optimization of pumping operations according to the electricity tariff and the water demand and (iii) the addition of a renewable energy source, a wind turbine, to supply energy to the pump-station and to sell the remaining to the national grid. The use of an integrated solution (water/energy) shows to be a valuable input to benefit from available hydro energy in WSS to produce clean power and the use of wind source allows reducing the energy consumption in pump-stations, which is still mostly based on fossil fuels with high levels of CO2 emissions.

Keywords multi-criterion optimization   energy efficiency   water supply systems   renewable sources   CO2 emissions  
Received 2010-04-21 Revised 2010-07-28 Online: 2010-09-27 
DOI: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2010.03.009
Fund:

national nature fund;SRF for ROCS, SEM

Corresponding Authors: Helena M. RAMOS
Email: hr@civil.ist.utl.pt
About author:

References:

Anagnostopoulos, J. S., and Papantonis, D. E. 2007. Pumping station design for a pumped-storage wind-hydro power plant. Energy Conversion and Management, 48(11), 3009-3017. [doi:10.1016/j.enconman. 2007.07.015]
Empresa Portuguesa das Águas Livres (EPAL). 2006. Relatório de Sustentabilidade 2006. Lisbon: EPAL. (in Portuguese)
Hiremath, R. B., Shikha, S., and Ravindranath, N. H. 2007. Decentralized energy planning: Modeling and application—a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 11(5), 729-752. [doi:10.1016/ j.rser.2005.07.005]
Ramos, H., Covas, D., and Araujo, L. S. 2004. Hydro potential in drinking pipe systems. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Hydropower (Hydro 2004). Porto: Aqua-Media International Ltd.
Ramos, J. S., and Ramos, H. M. 2008. Sustainable application of renewable sources in water pumping systems: Optimized energy system configuration. Energy Policy, 37(2), 633-643. [doi:10.1016/j.enpol. 2008.10.006]
Redes Energéticas Nacionais (REN). 2007. Characterization of National Transport Grid for Grid Access 31/12/2007. Relatório de Sustentabilidade 2007. Lisbon: REN. (in Portuguese)
Rossman, L. A. 2000. EPANET 2 User’s Manual. Cincinnati: National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Spadaro, J. V., Langlois, L., and Hamilton, B. 2000. Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Electricity Generation Chains: Assessing the Difference. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
Vieira, F., Ramos, H. M., and Covas, D. I. C. 2007. Multi-criteria optimization of energy efficiency in water supply systems. Water Management Challenges In Global Change. Proceedings of the 9th Computing and Control for the Water Industry (CCWI2007) and the Sustainable Urban Water Management (SUWM2007) Conference. Leicester: Taylor & Francis.
Vieira, F., and Ramos, H. M. 2008. Hybrid solution and pump-storage optimization in water supply system efficiency: A case study. Energy Policy, 36(11), 4142-4148. [doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.07.040].
Vieira, F., and Ramos, H. M. 2009. Optimization of operational planning for wind/hydro hybrid water supply systems. Renewable Energy, 34(3), 928-936. [doi:10.1016/j.renene.2008.05.031]

Similar articles

Copyright by Water Science and Engineering