Water Science and Engineering 2012, 5(2) 219-229 DOI:   10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2012.02.010  ISSN: 1674-2370 CN: 32-1785/TV

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Keywords
dam break
overtopping
headcut migration
sediment transport
Authors
ZHANG -jing
GUO Zhi-xue
CAO Shu-you
YANG Feng-guang
PubMed
Article by Zhang,.J
Article by Guo,Z.X
Article by Cao,S.Y
Article by Yang,F.G

Experimental study on scour and erosion of blocked dam

Jing ZHANG, Zhi-xue GUO, Shu-you CAO, Feng-guang YANG*

State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, P. R. China

Abstract

This paper presents new experimental data of the erosion rate and sediment transport rate during the processes of dam break caused by overtopping. In order to study the headcut migration, the erosion coefficient was calculated and its peak value was determined near the downstream edge of the dam crest. Then the characteristics of vertical erosion during dam break processes were analyzed by dividing the dam into three regions: the upstream region, middle region, and downstream region. The three regions show different features during headcut migration, but all are exposed to the most intense erosion at the third stage of the dam break process. Finally, three relevant parameters affecting sediment transport were discussed: the length of the dam crest, the inner slope, and the dam composition. The results show that a longer dam crest and flatter inner slope reduce the peak sediment transport rate and prolong the arrival time of peak sediment transport rate; and with the increase of the non-uniformity coefficient S, the peak sediment transport rate initially increases, and then decreases.

Keywords dam break   overtopping   headcut migration   sediment transport  
Received 2011-07-20 Revised 2012-02-15 Online: 2012-06-26 
DOI: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2012.02.010
Fund:

 the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No. 50979064 and 51079090).

Corresponding Authors: Feng-guang YANG
Email: yfg1243@yahoo.com.cn
About author:

References:

 

Begin, Z. B., Schumm, S. A., and Meyer, D. F. 1980. Knickpoint migration due to baselevel lowering. Journal of the Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Division, 106(3), 369-389.
Chen, L. K., and Chen, S. C. 2006. Retrogressive erosion and longitudinal profile evolution in noncohesive material. International Journal of Sediment Research, 21(2), 113-122.
Chinnarasri, C., Tingsanchali, T., Weesakul, S., and Wongwises, S. 2003. Flow patterns and damage of dike overtopping. International Journal of Sediment Research, 18(4), 301-309.
Clayton, J. A., and Knox, J. C. 2008. Catastrophic flooding from Glacial Lake Wisconsin. Geomorphology, 93(3-4), 384-397. [doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2007.03.006]
Dai, F. C., Lee, C. F., Deng, J. H., and Tham, L. G. 2005. The 1786 earthquake-triggered landslide dam and subsequent dam-break flood on the Dadu River, southwestern China. Geomorphology, 65(3-4), 205-221. [ doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.08.011]
Dodge, R. A. 1988. Overtopping Flow on Low Embankment Dams: Summary Report of Model Tests. Denver: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation.
Dong, J. J., Tung, Y. H., Chen, C. C., Liao, J. J., and Pan, Y. W. 2011. Logistic regression model for predicting the failure probability of a landslide dam. Engineering Geology, 117(1-2), 52-61. [doi:10.1016/j.enggeo. 2010.10.004]
Dumbser, M. 2011. A simple two-phase method for the simulation of complex free surface flows. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 200(9-12), 1204-1219. [doi:10.1016/j.cma.2010.10.011]
Han, Q. W., and He, W. M. 1999. The Incipient Mechanism and Velocity of Sediment. Beijing: Science Press. (in Chinese)
Li, M. H., Sung, R. T., Dong, J. J., Lee, C. T., and Chen, C. C. 2011. The formation and breaching of a short-lived landslide dam at Hsiaolin Village, Taiwan, part II: Simulation of debris ?ow with landslide dam breach. Engineering Geology, 123(1-2), 60-71. [doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2011.05.002]
Li, T. C., Schuster, R. L., and Wu, J. S. 1986. Landslide dams in south-central China. Landslide Dam: Processes, Risk, and Mitigation, 146-162. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.
Li, Y., and Li, J. 2009. Review of experimental study on dam-break. Advances in Water Science, 20(2), 304-310. (in Chinese)
Liu, X. N. 2004. Gravel Bed-load Transport and its Modelling. Ph. D. Dissertation. Chengdu: Sichuan University. (in Chinese)
Marzolff, I., and Poesen, J. 2009. The potential of 3D gully monitoring with GIS using high-resolution aerial photography and a digital photogrammetry system. Geomorphology, 111(1-2), 48-60. [doi:10.1016/ j.geomorph.2008.05.047]
Menéndez-Duarte, R., Marquínez, J., Fernandez-Menéndez, S., and Santos, R. 2007. Incised channels and gully erosion in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Controls and geomorphic setting. Catena, 71(2), 267-278.  [ doi:10.1016/j.catena.2007.01.002]
Ralston, D. C. 1987. Mechanics of embankment erosion during overflow. Ragan, R. M., ed., Proceedings of the 1987 National Conference on Hydraulic Engineering, 733-738. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.
Schuster, R. L., and Costa, J. E. 1986. A perspective on landslide dams. Schuster, R. L., ed., Landslide Dam: Processes, Risk, and Mitigation, 1-20. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.
Stavi, I., Perevolotsky, A., and Avni, Y. 2010. Effects of gully formation and headcut retreat on primary production in an arid rangeland: Natural desertification in action. Journal of Arid Environments, 74(2), 221-228. [doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2009.08.007]
Visser, P. J. 1998. Breach Growth in Sand-dikes. Ph. D. Dissertation. Delft: Delft University of Technology.
Wahl, T. L. 1998. Prediction of Embankment Dam Breach Parameters: A Literature Review and Needs Assessment. Denver: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation.
Yan, J., Cao, Z. X., Liu, H. H., and Chen, L. 2009. Experimental study of landslide dam-break flood over erodible bed in open channels. Journal of Hydrodynamics, Ser. B, 21(1), 124-130. [doi:10.1016/S1001- 6058(08)60127-4]
Zhang, J., Cao, S. Y., Yang, F. G., Luo, L. H., and Huang, E. 2010. Experimental study on outlet and scour of blocked dam. Journal of Sichuan University (Engineering Science Edition), 42(5), 191-196. (in Chinese)
Zhu, Y. H. 2006. Breach Growth in Clay-dikes. Ph. D. Dissertation. Delft: Delft University of Technology.
Begin, Z. B., Schumm, S. A., and Meyer, D. F. 1980. Knickpoint migration due to baselevel lowering. Journal of the Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Division, 106(3), 369-389.
Chen, L. K., and Chen, S. C. 2006. Retrogressive erosion and longitudinal profile evolution in noncohesive material. International Journal of Sediment Research, 21(2), 113-122.
Chinnarasri, C., Tingsanchali, T., Weesakul, S., and Wongwises, S. 2003. Flow patterns and damage of dike overtopping. International Journal of Sediment Research, 18(4), 301-309.
Clayton, J. A., and Knox, J. C. 2008. Catastrophic flooding from Glacial Lake Wisconsin. Geomorphology, 93(3-4), 384-397. [doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2007.03.006]
Dai, F. C., Lee, C. F., Deng, J. H., and Tham, L. G. 2005. The 1786 earthquake-triggered landslide dam and subsequent dam-break flood on the Dadu River, southwestern China. Geomorphology, 65(3-4), 205-221. [ doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.08.011]
Dodge, R. A. 1988. Overtopping Flow on Low Embankment Dams: Summary Report of Model Tests. Denver: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation.
Dong, J. J., Tung, Y. H., Chen, C. C., Liao, J. J., and Pan, Y. W. 2011. Logistic regression model for predicting the failure probability of a landslide dam. Engineering Geology, 117(1-2), 52-61. [doi:10.1016/j.enggeo. 2010.10.004]
Dumbser, M. 2011. A simple two-phase method for the simulation of complex free surface flows. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 200(9-12), 1204-1219. [doi:10.1016/j.cma.2010.10.011]
Han, Q. W., and He, W. M. 1999. The Incipient Mechanism and Velocity of Sediment. Beijing: Science Press. (in Chinese)
Li, M. H., Sung, R. T., Dong, J. J., Lee, C. T., and Chen, C. C. 2011. The formation and breaching of a short-lived landslide dam at Hsiaolin Village, Taiwan, part II: Simulation of debris ?ow with landslide dam breach. Engineering Geology, 123(1-2), 60-71. [doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2011.05.002]
Li, T. C., Schuster, R. L., and Wu, J. S. 1986. Landslide dams in south-central China. Landslide Dam: Processes, Risk, and Mitigation, 146-162. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.
Li, Y., and Li, J. 2009. Review of experimental study on dam-break. Advances in Water Science, 20(2), 304-310. (in Chinese)
Liu, X. N. 2004. Gravel Bed-load Transport and its Modelling. Ph. D. Dissertation. Chengdu: Sichuan University. (in Chinese)
Marzolff, I., and Poesen, J. 2009. The potential of 3D gully monitoring with GIS using high-resolution aerial photography and a digital photogrammetry system. Geomorphology, 111(1-2), 48-60. [doi:10.1016/ j.geomorph.2008.05.047]
Menéndez-Duarte, R., Marquínez, J., Fernandez-Menéndez, S., and Santos, R. 2007. Incised channels and gully erosion in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Controls and geomorphic setting. Catena, 71(2), 267-278.  [ doi:10.1016/j.catena.2007.01.002]
Ralston, D. C. 1987. Mechanics of embankment erosion during overflow. Ragan, R. M., ed., Proceedings of the 1987 National Conference on Hydraulic Engineering, 733-738. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.
Schuster, R. L., and Costa, J. E. 1986. A perspective on landslide dams. Schuster, R. L., ed., Landslide Dam: Processes, Risk, and Mitigation, 1-20. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.
Stavi, I., Perevolotsky, A., and Avni, Y. 2010. Effects of gully formation and headcut retreat on primary production in an arid rangeland: Natural desertification in action. Journal of Arid Environments, 74(2), 221-228. [doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2009.08.007]
Visser, P. J. 1998. Breach Growth in Sand-dikes. Ph. D. Dissertation. Delft: Delft University of Technology.
Wahl, T. L. 1998. Prediction of Embankment Dam Breach Parameters: A Literature Review and Needs Assessment. Denver: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation.
Yan, J., Cao, Z. X., Liu, H. H., and Chen, L. 2009. Experimental study of landslide dam-break flood over erodible bed in open channels. Journal of Hydrodynamics, Ser. B, 21(1), 124-130. [doi:10.1016/S1001- 6058(08)60127-4]
Zhang, J., Cao, S. Y., Yang, F. G., Luo, L. H., and Huang, E. 2010. Experimental study on outlet and scour of blocked dam. Journal of Sichuan University (Engineering Science Edition), 42(5), 191-196. (in Chinese)
Zhu, Y. H. 2006. Breach Growth in Clay-dikes. Ph. D. Dissertation. Delft: Delft University of Technology.
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