Water Science and Engineering 2015, 8(1) 30-39 DOI:   10.1016/j.wse.2014.11.001  ISSN: 1674-2370 CN: 32-1785/TV

Current Issue | Archive | Search                                                            [Print]   [Close]
Information and Service
This Article
Supporting info
PDF(5936KB)
Reference
Service and feedback
Email this article to a colleague
Add to Bookshelf
Add to Citation Manager
Cite This Article
Email Alert
Keywords
water quality
single factor evaluation method
Mann-Kendall test
numerical modeling
cluster analysis
Dangjiangkou Reservoir
Authors
Xiao-kang XIN
Ke-feng LI
Brian FINLAYSON
Wei YIN
PubMed
Article by Xiao-kang XIN
Article by Ke-feng LI
Article by Brian FINLAYSON
Article by Wei YIN

Evaluation, prediction, and protection of water quality in Danjiangkou Reservoir, China

Xiao-kang XIN*1, 2, Ke-feng LI1, Brian FINLAYSON3, Wei YIN2

1. State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, P. R. China
2. Changjiang Water Resources Protection Institute, Changjiang Water Resources Commission, Wuhan 430051, P. R. China
3. Department of Resource Management and Geography, the University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia

Abstract

The water quality in the Danjiangkou Reservoir has attracted considerable attention from the Chinese public and government since the announcement of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which commenced transferring water in 2014. Integrated research on the evaluation, prediction, and protection of water quality in the Danjiangkou Reservoir was carried out in this study in order to improve environmental management. Based on 120 water samples, wherein 17 water quality indices were measured at 20 monitoring sites, a single factor evaluation method was used to evaluate the current status of water quality. The results show that the main indices influencing the water quality in the Danjiangkou Reservoir are total phosphorus (TP), permanganate index (CODMn), dissolved oxygen (DO), and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and the concentrations of TP, BOD5, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), CODMn, DO, and anionic surfactant (Surfa) do not reach the specified standard levels in the tributaries. Seasonal Mann-Kendall tests indicated that the CODMn concentration shows a highly significant increasing trend, and the TP concentration shows a significant increasing trend in the Danjiangkou Reservoir. The distribution of the main water quality indices in the Danjiangkou Reservoir was predicted using a two-dimensional water quality numerical model, and showed that the sphere of influence from the tributaries can spread across half of the Han Reservoir if the pollutants are not controlled. Cluster analysis (CA) results suggest that the Shending River is heavily polluted, that the Jianghe, Sihe, and Jianhe rivers are moderately polluted, and that they should be the focus of environmental remediation.

Keywords water quality   single factor evaluation method   Mann-Kendall test   numerical modeling   cluster analysis   Dangjiangkou Reservoir  
Received 2014-07-13 Revised 2014-11-24 Online: 2015-01-31 
DOI: 10.1016/j.wse.2014.11.001
Fund:

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No. 41101250 and 51309031) and the Chinese 12th Five-Year Science and Technology Support Program (Grant No. 2012BAC06B00).

Corresponding Authors: Xiao-kang XIN
Email: xin.xiaokang@163.com
About author:

References:

Bao, L. J., Maruya, K. A., Snyder, S. A., and Zeng, E. Y. 2012. China’s water pollution by persistent organic pollutants. Environmental Pollution, 163, 100-108.
[doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2011.12.022]
Booker, D. J., and Woods, R. A. 2014. Comparing and combining physically-based and empirically-based approaches for establishing the hydrology of ungauged catchments. Journal of Hydrology, 508, 227-239.
[doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.11.007]
Bouza-Deaño, R., Ternero-Rodríguez, M., and Fernández-Espinosa, A. J. 2008. Trend study and assessment of surface water quality in the Ebro River (Spain). Journal of Hydrology, 361(3-4), 227-239.
[doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.07.048]
Chang, H. 2008. Spatial analysis of water quality trends in the Han River basin, South Korea. Water Research, 42(13), 3285-3304.
[doi:10.1016/j.watres.2008.04.006]
Crosa, G., Froebrich, J., Nikolayenko, V., Stefani, F., Galli, P., and Calamari, D. 2006. Spatial and seasonal variations in the water quality of the Amu Darya River (Central Asia). Water Research, 40(11), 2237-2245.
[doi:10.1016/j.watres.2006.04.004]
Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI). 2001. MIKE 21 User Guide and Reference Manual. Horsholm: DHI.
El-Shaarawi, A. H., Esterby, S. R., and Kuntz, K.W. 1983. A statistical evaluation of trends in the water quality of the Niagara River. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 9(2), 234-240.
[doi:10.1016/S0380-1330(83)71892-7]
Gevrey, M., Comte, L., de Zwart, D., and Lek, S. 2010. Modeling the chemical and toxic water status of the Scheldt basin (Belgium), using aquatic invertebrate assemblages and an advanced modeling method. Environmental Pollution, 158(10), 3209-3218.
[doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2010.07.006]
Hirsch, R. M., Slack, J. R., and Smith, R. A. 1982. Nonparametric test for trend in water quality. Water Resources Research, 18, 107-121.
[doi:10.1029/WR020i001p00127]
Hu, Y. N., and Cheng, H. F. 2013. Water pollution during China’s industrial transition. Environmental Development, 8, 57-73.
[doi:10.1016/j.envdev.2013.06.001]
Kundzewicz, Z. W., and Robson, A. J. 2004. Change detection in hydrological records-a review of the methodology. Hydrological Science Journal, 49(1), 7-19.
Lindim, C., Pinho, J. L., and Vieira, J. M. P. 2011. Analysis of spatial and temporal patterns in a large reservoir using water quality and hydrodynamic modeling. Ecological Modelling, 222(14), 2485-2494.
[doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2010.07.019]
Long, J., Ji, H. F., and Huang, Z. Y. 2009. Application of time series analysis in water quality prediction. Chinese Journal of Scientific Instrument, 30(6), 350-352. (in Chinese)
Naddeo, V., Scannapieco, D., Zarra, T., and Belgiorno, V. 2013. River water quality assessment: Implementation of non-parametric tests for sampling frequency optimization. Land Use Polocy, 30(1), 197-205.
[doi:10.1016/j.landusepol.2012.03.013]
Nasiri, F., Maqsood, I., Huang, G., and Fuller, N. 2007. Water quality index: A fuzzy river-pollution decision support expert system. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 133(2), 95-105.
[doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9496(2007)133:2(95)]
Nives, S. G. 1999. Water quality evaluation by index in Dalmatia. Water Research, 33(16), 3423-3440.
[doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(99)00063-9]
Olsen, R. L., Chappell, R. W., and Loftis, J. C. 2012. Water quality sample collection, data treatment and results presentation for principal components analysis-literature review and Illinois River watershed case study. Water Research, 46(9), 3110-3112.
[doi:10.1016/j.watres.2012.03.028]
Ott, W. R. 1978. Water Quality Indices: A Survey of Indices Used in the United States. Washington, D.C.: US Environmental Protection Agency.
Paul, M. J., and Meyer, J. L. 2001. Streams in the urban landscape. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 32, 333-365.
[doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.32.081501.114040]
Seeboonruang, U. 2012. A statistical assessment of the impact of land uses on surface water quality indexes. Journal of Environmental Management, 101, 134-142.
[doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.10.019]
Simeonov, V., Stratis, J. A., Samara, C., Zachariadis, G., Voutsa, D., Anthemidis, A., Sofoniou, M., and Kouimtzis, T. 2003. Assessment of the surface water quality in Northern Greece. Water Research, 37(17), 4119-4124.
[doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00398-1]
Sokolova, E., Pettersson, T. J. R., Bergstedt, O., and Hermansson, M. 2013. Hydrodynamic modeling of the microbial water quality in a drinking water source as input for risk reduction management. Journal of Hydrology, 497, 15-23.
[doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.05.044]
Vanlandeghem, M. M., Meyer, M. D., Cox, S. B., Sharma, B., and Patiño, R. 2012. Spatial and temporal patterns of surface water quality and ichthyotoxicity in urban and rural river basins in Texas. Water Research, 46(20), 6638-6651.
[doi:10.1016/j.watres.2012.05.002]
Xin, X. K., Yin, W., and Yang, F. 2012, Research on water quality evolution trend of Danjiangkou Reservoir by Kendall Method. Yangtze River, 43(13), 91-94. (in Chinese)
Xu, H. S., Xu, Z. X., Wu, W., and Tang, F. F. 2012. Assessment and spatiotemporal variation analysis of water quality in the Zhangweinan River Basin, China. Procedia Environmental Science, 13, 1641-1652.
[doi:10.1016/j.proenv.2012.01.157]
Xu, Z. X. 2005. Single factor water quality identification index for environmental quality assessment of surface water. Journal of Tongji University (Natural Science), 33(3), 321-325. (in Chinese)
Yenilmez, F., Keskin, F., and Aksoya, A. 2011. Water quality trend analysis in Eymir Lake, Ankara. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 36(5-6), 135-140.
[doi:10.1016/j.pce.2010.05.005]
Zhang, S. P., and Xin, X. K. 2013. Application of MIKE 21 Module in waste drainage outlet arrangement for enterprise sewage treatment plant. Water Resources and Power, 31(9), 101-104. (in Chinese)
Zhao, Y., Xia, X. H., Yang, Z. F., and Wang, F. 2012. Assessment of water quality in Baiyangdian Lake using multivariate statistical techniques. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 13, 1213-1226.
[doi:10.1016/j.proenv.2012.01.115]
Zhou, N. Q., Westrich, B., Jiang, S. M., and Wang, Y. 2011. A coupling simulation based on a hydrodynamics and water quality model of the Pearl River Delta, China. Journal of Hydrology, 396(3-4), 267-276.
[doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.11.019]
Zhu, D. S., Zhang, J. Y., Shi, X. X., and Yin, W. 2011. Modern water resources protection planning technology system. Water Resources Protection, 27(5), 28-31. (in Chinese)

Similar articles
1.Malabika Biswas, Nihar Ranjan Samal, Pankaj K Roy, Asis Mazumdar.Man-wetland dependency and socio-economic evaluation of wetland functions of rural India through participatory approach[J]. Water Science and Engineering, 2010,3(4): 467-479
2. Michael HARTNETT, Stephen NASH.An integrated measurement and modeling methodology for estuarine water quality management[J]. Water Science and Engineering, 2015,8(1): 9-19
3.Yan JIANG*1;Jun XIA2;Gang-sheng WANG2;Chang-sen ZHAO2.Simulation of environmental change in response to operation of dams in Huaihe Basin[J]. Water Science and Engineering, 2009,2(3): 27-36
4.Amina R. LODHI, Kumud ACHARYA.Detention basins as best management practices for water quality control in an arid region[J]. Water Science and Engineering, 2014,7(2): 155-167
5.Xu-ming WANG, Hai-jun LIU, Li-wei ZHANG, Rui-hao ZHANG.Climate change trend and its effects on reference evapotranspiration at Linhe Station, Hetao Irrigation District[J]. Water Science and Engineering, 2014,7(3): 250-266
6.Peng TIAN, Guang-ju ZHAO, Jing LI, Kun TIAN.Extreme value analysis of streamflow time series in the last half century in the Poyang Lake Basin, China[J]. Water Science and Engineering, 2011,4(2): 121-132
7.Lei TANG, Wei ZHANG, Ming-xiao XIE, Zhen YU.Application of equivalent resistance to simplification of Sutong Bridge piers in tidal river section modeling[J]. Water Science and Engineering, 2012,5(3): 316-328
8. Xi LI, Yi-gang WANG, Su-xiang ZHANG.Numerical simulation of water quality in Yangtze Estuary[J]. Water Science and Engineering, 2009,2(4): 40-51
9.pengtian.[J]. Water Science and Engineering, 0,(): 121-132
10.Gui-hua LU; Qian MA; Jian-hua ZHANG.Analysis of black water aggregation in Taihu Lake[J]. Water Science and Engineering, 2011,4(4): 374-385
11. Chun-ye WANG, Bin ZHOU, Bei HUANG.A continuing 30-year decline in water quality of Jiaojiang Estuary, China[J]. Water Science and Engineering, 2015,8(1): 20-29

Copyright by Water Science and Engineering