Water Science and Engineering 2020, 13(2) 106-115 DOI:   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wse.2020.06.007  ISSN: 1674-2370 CN: 32-1785/TV

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Keywords
Artemisinin sustained-release granules
Aquatic organisms
Toxicity assessment
Median lethal concentration
Antioxidant enzyme activity
Authors
PubMed

Toxic response of aquatic organisms to guide application of artemisinin sustained-release granule algaecide

Li-xiao Ni a,b,*, Na Wang a,b, Xuan-yu Liu a,b, Fei-fei Yue a,b, Yi-fei Wang a,b, Shi-yin Li c, Pei-fang Wang a,b

a Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China b College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
c School of Environment, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, China

Abstract

In our previous study, we prepared the granules by embedding artemisinin into alginate-chitosan using microcapsule technology. These
granules can release artemisinin sustainably and have a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of both single Microcystis aeruginosa and mixed
algae. To safely and effectively use artemisinin sustained-release granules to control algal blooms, the ecotoxicity was studied by assessing their
acute and chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna (D. magna) and Danio rerio (D. rerio), along with their antioxidant activities. The results showed
that the 48-h median effective concentration (EC50) of pure artemisinin to D. magna was 24.54 mg/L and the 96-h median lethal concentration
(LC50) of pure artemisinin to D. rerio was 68.08 mg/L. Both values were classified as intermediate toxicity according to the Organization for
Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The optimal algae inhibitory concentration of artemisinin sustained-release granules (1 g/L)
had low acute toxicity to both D. magna and D. rerio. The sustained-release granules had higher chronic toxicity to D. magna than to D. rerio.
Partial indices of D. magna were inhibited by granules when the concentrations were larger than 0.1 g/L. Low granule concentration had an
inductive effect on antioxidant enzyme activities in D. magna and D. rerio. With the increase of the exposure concentration and time, the enzyme
activity presented a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, and the overall changes were significant. The change trend and range of enzyme
activity indicated that the granules could cause serious oxidative stress to D. magna and D. rerio, and the changes were consistent with the results
of toxicity experimentation.

Keywords Artemisinin sustained-release granules   Aquatic organisms   Toxicity assessment   Median lethal concentration   Antioxidant enzyme activity  
Received 2019-09-20 Revised 2020-04-08 Online: 2020-06-30 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wse.2020.06.007
Fund:

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No. 91647206 and 51779079), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team at Hohai University (Grant No.IRT13061), the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), and the Top-notch Academic Programs Project of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (TAPP).

Corresponding Authors: Li-xiao Ni
Email: nilixiao@hhu.edu.cn
About author:

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