Water Science and Engineering 2020, 13(4) 317-328 DOI:   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wse.2020.12.002  ISSN: 1674-2370 CN: 32-1785/TV

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Mass balance
Water quality
Salt transport
Sumida River
Shakujii River

Quantifying water quality and flow in multi-branched urban estuaries for a rainfall event with mass balance method

Joan Cecilia Casila a, Gubash Azhikodan b, Katsuhide Yokoyama b,*

a Land and Water Resources Division – IAE, CEAT, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Los Baños 4031, Philippines
b Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397, Japan


In this study, field observations were conducted after a heavy rainfall event in the Sumida and Shakujii rivers in Tokyo, Japan. The flow dynamics and fluxes of salt, suspended sediments (SS), and dissolved oxygen (DO) were investigated with the mass balance method. The fractions of freshwater and saltwater in seaward and landward flows were separated. The maximum salt flux in the Shakujii River was 53.8 kg/s during the flood tide, and those in the Sumida River were 680.3 kg/s at the upstream station and 703.7 kg/s at the downstream station. The trends of SS and DO were similar in both rivers. In the Shakujii River, the highest SS (3.1 kg/s) and DO (0.4 kg/s) fluxes appeared during the flood tide after rainfall. In the Sumida River, the maximum SS fluxes (6.1 and 6.3 kg/s at the upstream and downstream stations, respectively) and DO fluxes (1.15 and 1.21 kg/s at the upstream and downstream stations, respectively) appeared during the ebb tide. The mass balance method was used to estimate discharge, salinity, SS concentration, and DO concentration at a station with missing data. The results show that the estimated salinity and SS concentration were in a significant correlation with the on-site observations with correlation coefficients (R) of 0.950 and 0.835, respectively, but not for DO (R = 0.638). The disparity between the computed and measured data may be explained by the differences in velocity, salinity, topography, sedimentation, and the presence of organic matters. The analysis based on the advective salt transport components found a lower salt flux in the Shakujii River (0.36 kg/(m·s)) in comparison with that in the Sumida River (2.88 kg/(m·s)). This indicates a higher probability for salt retention in the Shakujii River.

Keywords Mass balance   Water quality   Flow   Salt transport   Sumida River   Shakujii River   Estuary  
Received 2019-12-02 Revised 2020-05-16 Online: 2020-12-30 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wse.2020.12.002

This work was supported by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government and River Fund of the River Foundation, Japan.

Corresponding Authors: Katsuhide Yokoyama
Email: k-yoko@tmu.ac.jp
About author:


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