Water Science and Engineering     2015 8 (4):  263-272    ISSN: 1674-2370:  CN: 32-1785/TV

Temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of water resources in Guangdong Province based on a cloud model
Qi Zhoua,b,c, Wei Wangd, Yong Panga,b*, Zhi-yong Zhoue, Hui-ping Luoa
a Key Laboratory for Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, PR China
b College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, PR China
c College of Architecture Engineering, Tongling University, Tongling 244061, PR China
d College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, PR China
e Water Conservancy Bureau of Tongling City, Tongling 244000, PR China
Received 2015-02-28  Revised 2015-09-16  Online 2015-10-31
Reference  

Conway, D., Persechino, A., Ardoin-Bardin, S., Hamandawana, H., Dieulin, C., Mahé, G., 2009. Rainfall and water resources variability in Sub-Saharan Africa during the twentieth century. Journal of Hydrometeorology 10(1), 41–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2008JHM1004.1.
Dai, T., Shao, D.G., Huang, X.F, 2007. Research on space-time variability of water resources based on chaos theory. Engineering Journal of Wuhan University 40(5), 15–19, 24 (in Chinese).
Damien, D., Chul, E. C., Petri, R., 2015. Strategies for reducing the climate noise in model simulations: Ensemble runs versus a long continuous run. Climate Dynamics 44(5). 1367-1379.
Daubechies, I., 1988. Orthonormal bases of compactly supported wavelets. Communications on Pure & Applied Mathematics 41(7), 909–996. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1002/cpa.3160410705.
Di, K.C., Li, D.R., Li, D.Y., 1999. Cloud theory and its applications in spatial data mining and knowledge discovery. Journal of Image and Graphics 4(11), 929–935 (in Chinese).
Disalvo, A.C., Hart, S.C., 2002. Climatic and stream-flow controls on tree growth in a western montane riparian forest. Environmental Management 30(5), 678–691. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-002-2719-2.
Harris, N.M., Gurnell, A.M., Hannah, D.M., Petts, G.E., 2000. Classification of river regimes: A context for hydroecology. Hydrological Processes 14(16–17), 2831–2848. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-1085(200011/12)14:16/17<2831::AID- HYP122> 3.0.CO;2-O.
Hannah, D.M., Smith, B.P.G., Gurnell, A.M., McGregor, G.R., 2000. An approach to hydrograph classification. Hydrological Processes 14(2), 317–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(20000215)14:2<317::AID-HYP929>3.0.CO;2-T.
Hurst, H.E., 1951. Long-term storage capacity of reservoirs. Transcactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 116(1), 770–799.
Kendall, M. G. 1948. Rank Correlation Methods. Charles Griffin, London.
Li, D.Y., Meng, H.J., Shi, X.M., 1995. Membership clouds and membership cloud generators. Journal of Computer Research and Development 32(6), 16–21 (in Chinese).
Li, D.Y., 2000. Uncertainty in knowledge representation. Engineering Sciences 2(10), 73–79 (in Chinese).
Li, D.Y., Du, Y., 2005. Uncertainty Artificial Intelligence. China National Defence Industry Press, Beijing (in Chinese).
Lilover, M.J., Lips, U., Laaneraru, J., Liljebladh, B., 1998. Flow regime in the Irbe Strait. Aquatic Sciences 60(3), 253–265.
Ling, H.B., Xu, H.L., Fu, J.Y., 2013. Temporal and spatial variation in regional climate and its impact on runoff in Xinjiang, China. Water Resources Management 27(2), 381–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11269-012-0192-0.
Lins, H.F., Slack, J.R., 1999. Streamflow trends in the United States. Geophys. Res. Lett. 26(2), 227–230.
Lins, H.F., Slack, J.R., 2005. Seasonal and regional characteristics of US streamflow trends in the United States from 1940 to 1999. Phys. Geogr. 26(6), 489–501. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.2747/0272-3646.26.6.489.
Lovejoy, S., Schertzer, D., Tsonis, A.A., 1987. Functional box counting and multiple elliptical dimensions in rain. Science 235(4792), 1036–1038.
Mann, H. B. 1945. Nonparametric tests against trend. Journal of the Econometric Society 13(3), 245–259.
Milly, P.C.D., Dunne, K.A., Vecchia, A.V., 2005. Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate. Nature 438, 347–450.
Petts, G.E., Bickerton, M.A., Crawford, C., Lerner, D, N., Evans, D., 1999. Flow management to sustain groundwater-dominated stream ecosystems. Hydrological Processes 13(3), 497–513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(19990228)13:3 <497::AID-HYP753>3.0.CO;2-S.
Sivakumar, B., 2000. A preliminary investigation on the scaling behavior of rainfall observed in two different climates. Hydrological Sciences Journal 45(2), 203–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02626660009492320.
Wang, W.S., Ding, J., Li, Y.Q., 2005. Hydrology Wavelet Analysis. Chemical Industry Press, Beijing (in Chinese).
Wang, X.L., Hu, B.Q., Xia, J., 2002. R/S analysis method of trend and aberrance point on hydrological time series. Engineering Journal of Wuhan University 35(2), 10–12 (in Chinese).
Wei, G.W., Liu, H., Zheng, F., Weng, L.D., 2004. The points of water evaluation in American. Express Water Resources and Hydropower Information 25(9), 7, 21 (in Chinese).
Xu, J.J., Yang, D.W., Liu, Z.Y., Lei, Z.D., 2007. Analysis of spatial-temporal variability of water resources in upstream of Yangtze river using distributed hydrological mode. Journal of China Hydrology 27(3), 10–15, 28 (in Chinese).
Yang, Z.H., Li, D.Y., 1998. Plane model and its application in forecast. Journal of Computer, 21(11), 962–968 (in Chinese).
Zhang, J.G., Liu, X.R., 2000. Information entropy analysis on nonuniformity of precipitation distribution in time-space. Advances in water science 11(2), 133–143 (in Chinese).
Zhang, Y.Y., Zhang, S.F., Xia, J., Hua, D., 2013. Temporal and spatial variation of the main water balance components in the three rivers source region, China from 1960 to 2000. Environmental Earth Sciences 68(4), 973–983. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s12665-012-1800-2.
Zou, C.X., Shen, X.D., Li, H.Y., Li, X.Z., Li, Z.J., 2012. Wavelet analysis of spring climate characteristics in arid aeolian area of agro-pastoral ecotone in China. Water Science and Engineering 5(3), 269–277. http://dx.doi.org/10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370. 2012.03.003.


Corresponding author: Yong Pang