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Water Science and Engineering

2008, Vol.1 Num.3
Online: 2008-09-30


Gen-wei CHENG1;Zhong-bo YU2,3;Chang-sheng LI4;Yong HUANG2,3
Integrated simulation of runoff and groundwater in forest wetland watersheds
A Distributed Forest Wetland Hydrologic Model (DFWHM) was constructed and used to examine water dynamics in the different climates of three different watersheds (a cold region, a sub-tropic region, and a large-scale watershed). A phenological index was used to represent the seasonal and species changes of the tree canopy while processes of snow packing, soil freezing, and snow and ice thawing were also included in the simulation. In the cold region, the simulated fall of the groundwater level in winter due to soil freezing and rise in spring due to snow and ice melting compare well with the observed data. Because the evapotranspiration and interaction of surface water and groundwater are included in the model, the modeled seasonal trend of the groundwater level in the sub-tropic region is in agreement with observations. The comparison between modeled and observed hydrographs indicates that the simulations in the large-scale watershed managed to capture the water dynamics in unsaturated and saturated zones.
2008 Vol. 1 (3): 1-15 [Abstract] ( 2114 ) [HTML 0KB] [PDF 286KB] ( 1602 )
16 Xiao-fang RUI*1,2, Fang-gui LIU1,2, Mei YU1,2
Discussion of Muskingum method parameter X

The parameter X of the Muskingum method is a physical parameter that reflects the flood peak attenuation and hydrograph shape flattening of a diffusion wave in motion. In this paper, the historic process that hydrologists have undergone to find a physical explanation of this parameter is briefly discussed. Based on the fact that the Muskingum method is the second-order accuracy difference solution to the diffusion wave equation, its numerical stability condition is analyzed, and a conclusion is drawn: X<=0.5 is the uniform condition satisfying the demands for its physical meaning and numerical stability. It is also pointed out that the methods that regard the sum of squares of differences between the calculated and observed discharges or stages as the objective function and the routing coefficients C0 , C1 and C2 of the Muskingum method as the optimization parameters cannot guarantee the physical meaning of X.

2008 Vol. 1 (3): 16-23 [Abstract] ( 1883 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 113KB] ( 4148 )
24 Zhi-jia LI*1, Li-li WANG1, Hong-jun BAO1, Yu SONG2, Zhong-bo YU1, 3
Rainfall-runoff simulation and flood forecasting for Huaihe Basin

The main purpose of this study was to forecast the inflow to Hongze Lake using the Xin anjiang rainfall-runoff model. The upper area of Hongze Lake in the Huaihe Basin was divided into 23 sub-basins, including the surface of Hongze Lake. The influence of reservoirs and gates on flood forecasting was considered in a practical and simple way. With a one-day time step, the linear and non-linear Muskingum method was used for channel flood routing, and the least-square regression model was used for real-time correction in flood forecasting. Representative historical data were collected for the model calibration. The hydrological model parameters for each sub-basin were calibrated individually, so the parameters of the Xin anjiang model were different for different sub-basins. This flood forecasting system was used in the real-time simulation of the large flood in 2005 and the results are satisfactory when compared with measured data from the flood.

2008 Vol. 1 (3): 24-35 [Abstract] ( 2133 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 199KB] ( 2606 )
36 Hao-yun WU;Yan HU
Maintaining healthy rivers and lakes through water diversion from Yangtze River to Taihu lake in Taihu Basin

On the basis of the Taihu water resources assessment, an analysis of the importance and rationality of the water diversion from the Yangtze River to Taihu Lake in solving the water problem and establishing a harmonious eco-environment in the Taihu Basin is performed. The water quantity and water quality conjunctive dispatching decision-making support system, which ensures flood control, water supply and eco-aimed dispatching, is built by combining the water diversion with flood control dispatching and strengthening water resources monitoring and forecasting. With the practice and effect assessment, measures such as setting the integrated basin management format, further developing water diversion and improving the hydraulic engineering projects system and water monitoring system are proposed in order to maintain healthy rivers and guarantee the development of the economy and society in the Taihu Basin.

2008 Vol. 1 (3): 36-43 [Abstract] ( 2124 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 263KB] ( 2615 )
44 Li-juan XUE1,2, Li-jiao LI1, 3, Qi ZHANG*1
Hydrological behaviour and water balance analysis for Xitiaoxi catchment of Taihu Basin

With the rapid social and economic development of the Taihu region, Taihu Lake now faces an increasingly severe eutrophication problem. Pollution from surrounding catchments contributes greatly to the eutrophication of water bodies in the region. Investigation of surface flow and associated mass transport for the Xitiaoxi catchment is of a significant degree of importance as the Xitiaoxi catchment is one of the major catchments within the Taihu region. A SWAT-based distributed hydrological model was established for the Xitiaoxi catchment. The model was calibrated and verified using hydrometeorological data from 1988 to 2001. The results indicate that the modeled daily and annual stream flow match the observed data both in the calibration period and the verification period, with a linear regression coefficient R2 and a coefficient e for modeled daily stream flow greater than 0.8 at Hengtangcun and Fanjiacun gauge stations. The results show that the runoff process in the Xitiaoxi catchment is affected both by rainfall and human activities (e.g., reservoirs and polder areas). Moreover, the human activities weaken flood peaks more noticeably during rainstorms. The water balance analysis reveals the percentages of precipitation made up by surface flow, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge and the change of soil storage, all of which are considered useful to the further understanding of the hydrological processes in the Xitiaoxi catchment. This study provides a good base for further studies in mass transport modeling and comparison of modeling results from similar hydrological models.

2008 Vol. 1 (3): 44-53 [Abstract] ( 2371 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 342KB] ( 2597 )
54 Fei LENG*1, 2, Gao LIN1
Application of thermodynamics-based rate-dependent constitutive models of concrete in the seismic analysis of concrete dams

This paper discusses the seismic analysis of concrete dams with consideration of material nonlinearity. Based on a consistent rate-dependent model and two thermodynamics-based models, two thermodynamics-based rate-dependent constitutive models were developed with consideration of the influence of the strain rate. They can describe the dynamic behavior of concrete and be applied to nonlinear seismic analysis of concrete dams taking into account the rate sensitivity of concrete. With the two models, a nonlinear analysis of the seismic response of the Koyna Gravity Dam and the Dagangshan Arch Dam was conducted. The results were compared with those of a linear elastic model and two rate-independent thermodynamics-based constitutive models, and the influences of constitutive models and strain rate on the seismic response of concrete dams were discussed. It can be concluded from the analysis that, during seismic response, the tensile stress is the control stress in the design and seismic safety evaluation of concrete dams. In different models, the plastic strain and plastic strain rate of concrete dams show a similar distribution. When the influence of the strain rate is considered, the maximum plastic strain and plastic strain rate decrease.

2008 Vol. 1 (3): 54-64 [Abstract] ( 2150 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 424KB] ( 2469 )
65 Xu-hua REN*1, Jia-qing SHU1, Neng-hui BEN2, Hong-yun REN1
Stability analysis of concrete gravity dam on complicated foundation with multiple slide planes

A key problem in gravity dam design is providing enough stability to prevent slide, and the difficulty increases if there are several weak structural planes in the dam foundation. Overload and material weakening were taken into account, and a finite difference strength reserve method with partial safety factors based on the reliability method was developed and used to study the anti-slide stability of a concrete gravity dam on a complicated foundation with multiple slide planes. Possible slide paths were obtained, and the stability of the foundation with possible failure planes was evaluated through analysis of the stress distribution characteristics. The results reveal the mechanism and process of sliding due to weak structural planes and their deformations, and provide a reference for anti-slide stability analysis of gravity dams in complicated geological conditions.

2008 Vol. 1 (3): 65-72 [Abstract] ( 1937 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 202KB] ( 6907 )
73 Ji JING*1, 2, Dongjian ZHENG1, 2
An information-based rough set approach to critical engineering factor identification

In order to analyze the main critical engineering factors, an information-based rough set approach that considers conditional information entropy as a measurement of information has been developed. An algorithm for continuous attribute discretization based on conditional information entropy and an algorithm for rule extraction considering the supports of rules are proposed. The initial decision system is established by collecting enough monitoring data. Then, the continuous attributes are discretized, and the condition attributes are reduced. Finally, the rules that indicate the action law of the main factors are extracted and the results are explained. By applying this approach to a crack in an arch gravity dam, it can be concluded that the water level and the temperature are the main factors affecting the crack opening, and there is a negative correlation between the crack opening and the temperature. This conclusion corresponds with the observation that cracks in most concrete dams are influenced mainly by water level and temperature, and the influence of temperature is more evident.

2008 Vol. 1 (3): 73-82 [Abstract] ( 1715 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 164KB] ( 2184 )
83 Gui-lan ZHENG1, Yuan WANG*2, 3, Fei WANG2, 3, Jian YANG2, 3
Stochastic back analysis of permeability coefficient using generalized Bayesian method

Owing to the fact that the conventional deterministic back analysis of the permeability coefficient cannot reflect the uncertainties of parameters, including the hydraulic head at the boundary, the permeability coefficient and measured hydraulic head, a stochastic back analysis taking consideration of uncertainties of parameters was performed using the generalized Bayesian method. Based on the stochastic finite element method (SFEM) for a seepage field, the variable metric algorithm and the generalized Bayesian method, formulas for stochastic back analysis of the permeability coefficient were derived. A case study of seepage analysis of a sluice foundation was performed to illustrate the proposed method. The results indicate that, with the generalized Bayesian method that considers the uncertainties of measured hydraulic head, the permeability coefficient and the hydraulic head at the boundary, both the mean and standard deviation of the permeability coefficient can be obtained and the standard deviation is less than that obtained by the conventional Bayesian method. Therefore, the present method is valid and applicable.

2008 Vol. 1 (3): 83-92 [Abstract] ( 1724 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 144KB] ( 2221 )
93 Xin YU*1, Lin YE2, Gu WEI3
Modeling the formation of soluble microbial products (SMP) in drinking water biofiltration

Both a theoretical and an empirical model were developed for predicting the formation of soluble microbial products (SMP) during drinking water biofiltration. Four pilot-scale biofilters with ceramsite as the medium were fed with different acetate loadings for the determination of SMP formation. Using numerically simulated and measured parameters, the theoretical model was developed according to the substrate and biomass balance. The results of this model matched the measured data better for higher SMP formation but did not fit well when SMP formation was lower. In order to better simulate the reality and overcome the difficulties of measuring the kinetic parameters, a simpler empirical model was also developed. In this model, SMP formation was expressed as a function of fed organic loadings and the depth of the medium, and a much better fit was obtained.

2008 Vol. 1 (3): 93-101 [Abstract] ( 1917 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 220KB] ( 2475 )
102 Guang-ming YANG*, Chong-shi GU
Safety evaluation system for hydraulic metal structures based on knowledge engineering

A comprehensive safety evaluation system taking the most influential factors into account has been developed to evaluate the reliability of hydraulic metal structures. Applying the techniques of AI and DB, the idea of a one-machine and three-base system is proposed. The framework of the three-base system has been designed and the structural framework constructed in turn. A practical example is given to illustrate the process of using this system and it can be used for comparison and analysis purposes. The key technology of the system is its ability to reorganize and improve the expert system’s knowledge base by establishing the expert system. This system utilizes the computer technology inference process, making safety evaluation conclusions more reasonable and applicable to the actual situation. The system is not only advanced, but also feasible, reliable, artificially intelligent, and has the capacity to constantly grow.

2008 Vol. 1 (3): 102-111 [Abstract] ( 1795 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 179KB] ( 2151 )
112 Er-feng ZHAO*1, 2, Ya-chao WANG1, 2, Yu-feng JIANG1, 2, Lei ZHANG1, 2, Hong YU1, 2
Multi-dimensional database design and implementation of dam safety monitoring system

To improve the effectiveness of dam safety monitoring database systems, the development process of a multi-dimensional conceptual data model was analyzed and a logic design was achieved in multi-dimensional database mode. The optimal data model was confirmed by identifying data objects, defining relations and reviewing entities. The conversion of relations among entities to external keys and entities and physical attributes to tables and fields was interpreted completely. On this basis, a multi-dimensional database that reflects the management and analysis of a dam safety monitoring system on monitoring data information has been established, for which factual tables and dimensional tables have been designed. Finally, based on service design and user interface design, the dam safety monitoring system has been developed with Delphi as the development tool. This development project shows that the multi-dimensional database can simplify the development process and minimize hidden dangers in the database structure design. It is superior to other dam safety monitoring system development models and can provide a new research direction for system developers.

2008 Vol. 1 (3): 112-120 [Abstract] ( 1582 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 188KB] ( 2477 )
Water Science and Engineering
Quarterly:(Start 2008)
ISSN: 1674-2370
CN: 32-1785/TV
Edited by
Editorial Board of Water
Science and Engineering

Distributed by
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Science and Engineering

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