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Water Science and Engineering

2014, Vol.7 Num.3
Online: 2014-07-26


 
237 Zhen-chun HAO, Kai TONG, Xiao-li LIU, Lei-lei ZHANG
Capability of TMPA products to simulate streamflow in upper Yellow and Yangtze River basins on Tibetan Plateau

    Due to the high elevation, complex terrain, severe weather, and inaccessibility, direct meteorological observations do not exist over large portions of the Tibetan Plateau, especially the western part of it. Satellite rainfall estimates have been very important sources for precipitation information, particularly in rain gauge-sparse regions. In this study, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products 3B42, RTV5V6, and RTV7 were evaluated for their applicability to the upper Yellow and Yangtze River basins on the Tibetan Plateau. Moreover, the capability of the TMPA products to simulate streamflow was also investigated using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) semi-distributed hydrological model. Results show that 3B42 performs better than RTV5V6 and RTV7, based on verification of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) observational precipitation data. RTV5V6 can roughly capture the spatial precipitation pattern but overestimation exists throughout the entire study region. The anticipated improvements of RTV7 relative to RTV5V6 have not been realized in this study. Our results suggest that RTV7 significantly overestimates the precipitation over the two river basins, though it can capture the seasonal cycle features of precipitation. 3B42 shows the best performance in streamflow simulation of the abovementioned satellite products. Although involved in gauge adjustment at a monthly scale, 3B42 is capable of daily streamflow simulation. RTV5V6 and RTV7 have no capability to simulate streamflow in the upper Yellow and Yangtze River basins.

2014 Vol. 7 (3): 237-249 [Abstract] ( 1981 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2263KB] ( 1997 )
250 Xu-ming WANG, Hai-jun LIU, Li-wei ZHANG, Rui-hao ZHANG
Climate change trend and its effects on reference evapotranspiration at Linhe Station, Hetao Irrigation District

Linhe National Meteorological Station, a representative weather station in the Hetao Irrigation District of China, was selected as the research site for the present study. Changes in climatic variables and reference evapotranspiration (ET0 ) (estimated by the Penman-Monteith method) were detected using Mann-Kendall tests and Sen’s slope estimator, respectively. The authors analyzed the relationship between the   change and each climatic variable’s change. From 1954 to 2012, the air temperature showed a significant increasing trend, whereas relative humidity and wind speed decreased dramatically. These changes resulted in a slight increase in  . The radiative component of total   increased from 50% to 57%, indicating that this component made a greater contribution to the increase in total   than the aerodynamic component, especially during the crop growing season (from April to October). The sensitivity analysis showed that   in Hetao is most sensitive to mean daily air temperature (11.8%), followed by wind speed (−7.3%) and relative humidity (4.8%). Changes in sunshine duration had only a minor effect on   over the past 59 years. 

2014 Vol. 7 (3): 250-266 [Abstract] ( 2306 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1041KB] ( 3363 )
267 Valery Ivanovich ELFIMOV, Hamid KHAKZAD
 Evaluation of flow regime of turbidity currents entering Dez Reservoir using extended shallow water model

    In this study, the performance of the extended shallow water model (ESWM) in evaluation of the flow regime of turbidity currents entering the Dez Reservoir was investigated. The continuity equations for fluid and particles and the Navier-Stokes equations govern the entire flow of turbidity currents. The shallow water equations governing the flow of the depositing phase of turbidity currents are derived from these equations. A case study was conducted on the flow regime of turbidity currents entering the Dez Reservoir in Iran from January 2002 to July 2003. Facing a serious sedimentation problem, the dead storage of the Dez Reservoir will be full in the coming 10 years, and the inflowing water in the hydropower conduit system is now becoming turbid. Based on the values of the dimensionless friction number ( ) and dimensionless entrainment number ( ) of turbidity currents, and the coefficient of determination between the observed and predicted deposit depths (R2 = 0.86) for the flow regime of negligible friction and negligible entrainment (NFNE), the flow regime of turbidity currents coming into the Dez Reservoir is considered to be NFNE. The results suggest that the ESWM is an appropriate approach for evaluation of the flow regime of turbidity currents in dam reservoirs where the characteristics of turbidity currents, such as the deposit depth, must be evaluated. 

2014 Vol. 7 (3): 267-276 [Abstract] ( 1637 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1252KB] ( 2547 )
277 Zhi DOU, Zhi-fang ZHOU
 Lattice Boltzmann simulation of solute transport in a single rough fracture

    In this study, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) was used to simulate the solute transport in a single rough fracture. The self-affine rough fracture wall was generated with the successive random addition method. The ability of the developed LBM to simulate the solute transport was validated by Taylor dispersion. The effect of fluid velocity on the solute transport in a single rough fracture was investigated using the LBM. The breakthrough curves (BTCs) for continuous injection sources in rough fractures were analyzed and discussed with different Reynolds numbers (Re). The results show that the rough fracture wall leads to a large fluid velocity gradient across the aperture. Consequently, there is a broad distribution of the immobile region along the rough fracture wall. This distribution of the immobile region is very sensitive to the Re and fracture geometry, and the immobile region is enlarged with the increase of Re and roughness. The concentration of the solute front in the mobile region increases with the Re. Furthermore, the Re and roughness have significant effects on BTCs, and the slow solute molecule exchange between the mobile and immobile regions results in a long breakthrough tail for the rough fracture. This study also demonstrates that the developed LBM can be effective in studying the solute transport in a rough fracture.

2014 Vol. 7 (3): 277-287 [Abstract] ( 1703 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1619KB] ( 2721 )
288 Yong-liang ZHANG, Zheng LIN, Qiu-lin LIU
Marine renewable energy in China: Current status and perspectives

    Based on a general review of marine renewable energy in China, an assessment of the development status and amount of various marine renewable energy resources, including tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, and salinity gradient energy in China’s coastal seas, such as the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, is presented. We have found that these kinds of marine renewable energy resources will play an important role in meeting China’s future energy needs. Additionally, considering the uneven distribution of China’s marine renewable energy and the influences of its exploitation on the environment, we have suggested several sites with great potential for each kind of marine energy. Furthermore, perspectives on and challenges related with marine renewable energy in China are addressed.

2014 Vol. 7 (3): 288-305 [Abstract] ( 2413 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 672KB] ( 4133 )
306 Ke-zhao FANG, Ji-wei YIN, Zhong-bo LIU, Jia-wen SUN, Zhi-li ZOU
Revisiting study on Boussinesq modeling of wave transformation over various reef profiles

    To better understand the complex process of wave transformation and associated hydrodynamics over various fringing reef profiles, numerical experiments were conducted with a one-dimensional (1D) Boussinesq wave model. The model is based on higher-order Boussinesq equations and a higher-accuracy finite difference method. The dominant energy dissipation in the surf zone, wave breaking, and bottom friction were considered by use of the eddy viscosity concept and quadratic bottom friction law, respectively. Numerical simulation was conducted for a wide range of wave conditions and reef profiles. Good overall agreement between the computed results and the measurements shows that this model is capable of describing wave processes in the fringing reef environment. Numerical experiments were also conducted to track the source of underestimation of setup for highly nonlinear waves. Linear properties (including dispersion and shoaling) are found to contribute little to the underestimation; the low accuracy in nonlinearity and the ad hoc method for treating wave breaking may be the reason for the problem.

2014 Vol. 7 (3): 306-318 [Abstract] ( 1914 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1513KB] ( 2383 )
319 Rong-jian LI, Jun-ding LIU, Rui YAN, Wen ZHENG, Sheng-jun SHAO
Characteristics of structural loess strength and preliminary framework for joint strength formula

    The strength of structural loess consists of the shear strength and tensile strength. In this study, the stress path, the failure envelope of principal stress ( line), and the strength failure envelope of structurally intact loess and remolded loess were analyzed through three kinds of tests: the tensile strength test, the uniaxial compressive strength test, and the conventional triaxial shear strength test. Then, in order to describe the tensile strength and shear strength of structural loess comprehensively and reasonably, a joint strength formula for structural loess was established. This formula comprehensively considers tensile and shear properties. Studies have shown that the tensile strength exhibits a decreasing trend with increasing water content. When the water content is constant, the tensile strength of the structurally intact soil is greater than that of remolded soil. In the studies, no loss of the originally cured cohesion in the structurally intact soil samples was observed, given that the soil samples did not experience loading disturbance during the uniaxial compressive strength test, meaning there is a high initial structural strength. The results of the conventional triaxial shear strength test show that the water content is correlated with the strength of the structural loess. When the water content is low, the structural properties are strong, and when the water content is high, the structural properties are weak, which means that the water content and the ambient pressure have significant effects on the stress-strain relationship of structural loess. The established joint strength formula of structural loess effectively avoids overestimating the role of soil tensile strength in the traditional theory of Mohr-Coulomb strength.

2014 Vol. 7 (3): 319-330 [Abstract] ( 1469 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1181KB] ( 2424 )
331 Yun-ping YANG, Yi-tian LI, Yong-yang FAN, Jun-hong ZHANG
Impact of water and sediment discharges on subaqueous delta evolution in Yangtze Estuary from 1950 to 2010

    In order to determine how the subaqueous delta evolution depends on the water and sediment processes in the Yangtze Estuary, the amounts of water and sediment discharged into the estuary were studied. The results show that, during the period from 1950 to 2010, there was no significant change in the annual water discharge, and the multi-annual mean water discharge increased in dry seasons and decreased in flood seasons. However, the annual sediment discharge and the multi-annual mean sediment discharge in flood and dry seasons took on a decreasing trend, and the intra-annual distribution of water and sediment discharges tended to be uniform. The evolution process from deposition to erosion occurred at the ?10 m and ?20 m isobaths of the subaqueous delta. The enhanced annual water and sediment discharges had a silting-up effect on the delta, and the effect of sediment was greater than that of water. Based on data analysis, empirical curves were built to present the relationships between the water and sediment discharges over a year or in dry and flood seasons and the erosion/deposition rates in typical regions of the subaqueous delta, whose evolution followed the pattern of silting in flood seasons and scouring in dry seasons. Notably, the Three Gorges Dam has changed the distribution processes of water and sediment discharges, and the dam’s regulating and reserving functions can benefit the subaqueous delta deposition when the annual water and sediment discharges are not affected.

2014 Vol. 7 (3): 331-343 [Abstract] ( 1746 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1823KB] ( 1983 )
344 Hong-wei ZHU, Peng-da CHENG, Dao-zeng WANG
Relative roles of resuspended particles and pore water in release of contaminants from sediment

    Sediment layers containing contaminants play a significant role in environmental hydrodynamics. Experiments were conducted in order to characterize the relative roles of resuspended particles and pore water under different flow and sediment conditions. A conservative tracer (NaCl) and a reactive tracer (phosphate) were used as contaminants in the bottom sediment in a laboratory flume. The mixing between the overlying water and pore water occurred over a short time while the desorption of contaminants from fine-grained resuspended particles lasted a relatively long time. The effects of resuspended particles and pore water on the variations of release flux and concentration of contaminants in water with time under different hydrodynamic conditions were quantified. The results show that pore water dominated the initial release flux, which could be several orders of magnitude greater than the flux due to molecular diffusion. Flux contribution of desorption from sediment particles in the latter release could be equal to what was seen from pore water in the initial stage.

2014 Vol. 7 (3): 344-350 [Abstract] ( 1518 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 737KB] ( 1925 )
Water Science and Engineering
 
 
Quarterly:(Start 2008)
ISSN: 1674-2370
CN: 32-1785/TV
Editor-in-Chief:
Chao WANG
Edited by
Editorial Board of Water
Science and Engineering

Distributed by
Editorial Office of Water
Science and Engineering

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