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Water Science and Engineering

2009, Vol.2 Num.3
Online: 2009-09-30

1 Li-ren YU, Jun YU
Numerical research on flow and thermal transport in cooling pool of electrical power station using three depth-averaged turbulence models

This paper describes a numerical simulation of thermal discharge in the cooling pool of an electrical power station, aiming to develop general-purpose computational programs for grid generation and flow/pollutant transport in the complex domains of natural and artificial waterways. Three depth-averaged two-equation closure turbulence models, κ- ε, κ-w , and κ-ω, were used to close the quasi three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The κ-ω model was recently established by the authors and is still in the testing process. The general-purpose computational programs and turbulence models will be involved in a software that is under development. The SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equation) algorithm and multi-grid iterative method are used to solve the hydrodynamic fundamental governing equations, which are discretized on non-orthogonal boundary-fitted grids with a variable collocated arrangement. The results calculated with the three turbulence models were compared with one another. In addition to the steady flow and thermal transport simulation, the unsteady process of waste heat inpouring and development in the cooling pool was also investigated.

2009 Vol. 2 (3): 1-12 [Abstract] ( 1804 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 666KB] ( 2372 )

Jie ZHOU1, Cheng ZENG*2

3-D hybrid LES-RANS model for simulation of open-channel T-diversion flows

The study of flow diversions in open channels plays an important practical role in the design and management of open-channel networks for irrigation or drainage. To accurately predict the mean flow and turbulence characteristics of open-channel dividing flows, a hybrid LES-RANS model, which combines the large eddy simulation (LES) model with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model, is proposed in the present study. The unsteady RANS model was used to simulate the upstream and downstream regions of a main channel, as well as the downstream region of a branch channel. The LES model was used to simulate the channel diversion region, where turbulent flow characteristics are complicated. Isotropic velocity fluctuations were added at the inflow interface of the LES region to trigger the generation of resolved turbulence. A method based on the virtual body force is proposed to impose Reynolds-averaged velocity fields near the outlet of the LES region in order to take downstream flow effects computed by the RANS model into account and dissipate the excessive turbulent fluctuations. This hybrid approach saves computational effort and makes it easier to properly specify inlet and outlet boundary conditions. Comparison between computational results and experimental data indicates that this relatively new modeling approach can accurately predict open-channel T-diversion flows

2009 Vol. 2 (3): 13-26 [Abstract] ( 1668 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 368KB] ( 2519 )
27 Yan JIANG*1;Jun XIA2;Gang-sheng WANG2;Chang-sen ZHAO2
Simulation of environmental change in response to operation of dams in Huaihe Basin

This paper describes the model simulation of a portion of the Huaihe Basin upstream of the river mouth at Hongze Lake, with an area of 130 520 km2. The MIKE 11 modeling system was used to assess the flows and water quality in the Huaihe, Shayinghe, Honghe, Guohe, and Pihe rivers. The hydraulic part of the model was used to study the propagation of flows in the Huaihe River, which was calibrated with data from 2002-2003 and verified with data from 2004-2005. In general, there was agreement between measured and simulated discharges at all the hydrological stations. Except for some places close to large gates, there was reasonable agreement between measured and simulated water levels in the simulated rivers. The MIKE 11 WQ (water quality) model was used to study general sanitary parameters describing the river water quality in areas influenced by human activities. The water quality model simulated dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). The difference between the simulated and observed concentrations was within the range that could be expected from water quality modeling, taking into account uncertainties such as pollution loads, and monitoring and sampling frequency. This model setup was also suitable for the subsequent scenario modeling of periods of water project operation. In the simulation of the Pihe River, increasing the discharge at Hengpaitou Dam was shown to cause a significant improvement in water quality downstream of Lu’an City. In the Shayinghe and Huaihe rivers, the effect was less visible. This suggests that the poor water quality in the Huaihe Basin is mainly caused by extensive discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater.

2009 Vol. 2 (3): 27-36 [Abstract] ( 1929 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 189KB] ( 2195 )
37 Yong FAN
Application of 2-D sediment model to fluctuating backwater area of Yangtze River

Based on the characteristics of backflow, a two-dimensional mathematical model of sediment movement was established. The complexity of the watercourse boundary at the confluence of the main stream and the tributary was dealt with using a boundary-fitting orthogonal coordinate system. The basic equation of the two-dimensional total sediment load model, the numerical calculation format, and key problems associated with using the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system were discussed. Water and sediment flow in the Chongqing reach of the Yangtze River were simulated. The calculated water level, flow velocity distribution, amount of silting and scouring, and alluvial distribution are found to be in agreement with the measured data, which indicates that the numerical model and calculation method are reasonable. The model can be used for calculation of flow in a relatively complicated river network

2009 Vol. 2 (3): 37-47 [Abstract] ( 2170 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 267KB] ( 2514 )
48 Si-hong LIU*1, 2
Application of in situ direct shear device to shear strength measurement of rockfill materials

A simplified in situ direct shear test (DST) was developed for measuring the shear strength of soils in fields. In this test, a latticed shearing frame replaces the upper half of the shear box used in the conventional direct shear box test. The latticed shearing frame is directly embedded in the ground to be tested after a construction process and is pulled with a flexible chain while a constant dead load is applied to the sample in the shearing frame. This simplified in situ DST has been validated by comparing its results with those of triaxial tests on samples with parallel gradations under normal stresses less than 100 kPa. In this study, the DST was further validated by carrying out tests on samples with the same gradations, rather than on samples with parallel gradations, under normal stresses up to 880 kPa. In addition, the DST was performed inside fills in two applications.

2009 Vol. 2 (3): 48-57 [Abstract] ( 2131 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 302KB] ( 4741 )
58 Li-cheng WANG*1;Tamon UEDA2
Meso-scale modeling of chloride diffusion in concrete with consideration of effects of time and temperature

A meso-scale truss network model was developed to predict chloride diffusion in concrete. The model regards concrete as a three-phase composite of mortar matrix, coarse aggregates, and the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the mortar matrix and the aggregates. The diffusion coefficient of chloride in the mortar and the ITZ can be analytically determined with only the water-to-cement ratio and volume fraction of fine aggregates. Fick’s second law of diffusion was used as the governing equation for chloride diffusion in a homogenous medium (e.g., mortar); it was discretized and applied to the truss network model. The solution procedure of the truss network model based on the diffusion law and the meso-scale composite structure of concrete is outlined. Additionally, the dependence of the diffusion coefficient of chloride in the mortar and the ITZ on exposure duration and temperature is taken into account to illustrate their effect on chloride diffusion coefficient. The numerical results show that the exposure duration and environmental temperature play important roles in the diffusion rate of chloride ions in concrete. It is also concluded that the meso-scale truss network model can be applied to chloride transport analysis of damaged (or cracked) concrete.

2009 Vol. 2 (3): 58-70 [Abstract] ( 2213 ) [HTML 0KB] [PDF 315KB] ( 2760 )
71 Wan-jin LIANG*; Chao SU; Fei WANG;Xiao-jun TANG
Surrounding rock deformation analysis of underground caverns with multi-body finite element method

Discontinuous deformation problems are common in rock engineering. Numerical analysis methods based on system models of the discrete body can better solve these problems. One of the most effective solutions is discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) method, but the DDA method brings about rock embedding problems when it uses the strain assumption in elastic deformation and adopts virtual springs to simulate the contact problems. The multi-body finite element method (FEM) proposed in this paper can solve the problems of contact and deformation of blocks very well because it integrates the FEM and multi-body system dynamics theory. It is therefore a complete method for solving discontinuous deformation problems through balance equations of the contact surface and for simulating the displacement of whole blocks. In this study, this method was successfully used for deformation analysis of underground caverns in stratified rock. The simulation results indicate that the multi-body FEM can show contact forces and the stress states on contact surfaces better than DDA, and that the results calculated with the multi-body FEM are more consistent with engineering practice than those calculated with DDA method.

2009 Vol. 2 (3): 71-77 [Abstract] ( 1902 ) [HTML 0KB] [PDF 181KB] ( 3132 )
78 Zhi-gang YANG*1, 2;Tong-chun LI1; Miao-lin DAI1
Reliability analysis method for slope stability based on sample weight

The single safety factor criteria for slope stability evaluation, derived from the rigid limit equilibrium method or finite element method (FEM), may not include some important information, especially for steep slopes with complex geological conditions. This paper presents a new reliability method that uses sample weight analysis. Based on the distribution characteristics of random variables, the minimal sample size of every random variable is extracted according to a small sample t-distribution under a certain expected value, and the weight coefficient of each extracted sample is considered to be its contribution to the random variables. Then, the weight coefficients of the random sample combinations are determined using the Bayes formula, and different sample combinations are taken as the input for slope stability analysis. According to one-to-one mapping between the input sample combination and the output safety coefficient, the reliability index of slope stability can be obtained with the multiplication principle. Slope stability analysis of the left bank of the Baihetan Project is used as an example, and the analysis results show that the present method is reasonable and practicable for the reliability analysis of steep slopes with complex geological conditions

2009 Vol. 2 (3): 78-86 [Abstract] ( 2002 ) [HTML 0KB] [PDF 162KB] ( 1715 )
87 Van-hung DAO*1, 2
Tunnel design considering stress release effect

In tunnel design, the determination of installation time and the stiffness of supporting structures is very important to the tunnel stability. This study used the convergence-confinement method to determine the stress and displacement of the tunnel while considering the counter-pressure curve of the ground base, the stress release effect, and the interaction between the tunnel lining and the rock surrounding the tunnel chamber. The results allowed for the determination of the installation time, distribution and strength of supporting structures. This method was applied to the intake tunnel in the Ban Ve Hydroelectric Power Plant, in Nghe An Province, Vietnam. The results show that when a suitable displacement u0¬ ranging from 0.086 5 m to 0.091 9 m occurrs, we can install supporting structures that satisfy the stability and economical requirements

2009 Vol. 2 (3): 87-95 [Abstract] ( 2089 ) [HTML 0KB] [PDF 166KB] ( 6447 )
96 Wen-xian ZHANG*1, 2;Zhan-yu ZHANG2;Kang WANG3
Experimental study and simulations of infiltration in evapotranspiration landfill covers

Various cover systems have been designed for landfill sites in order to minimize infiltration (percolation) into the underlying waste. This study evaluated the soil water balance performance of evapotranspiration covers (ET covers) and simulated percolation in the systems using the active region model (ARM). Experiments were conducted to measure water flow processes and water balance components in a bare soil cover and different ET covers. Results showed that vegetation played a critical role in controlling the water balance of the ET covers. In soil profiles of 60-cm depth with and without vegetation cover, the maximum soil water storage capacities were 97.2 mm and 62.8 mm, respectively. The percolation amount in the bare soil was 2.1 times that in the vegetation-covered soil. The ARM simulated percolation more accurately than the continuum model because it considered preferential flow. Numerical simulation results also indicated that using the ET cover system was an effective way of removing water through evapotranspiration, thus reducing percolation.

2009 Vol. 2 (3): 96-109 [Abstract] ( 2124 ) [HTML 0KB] [PDF 330KB] ( 1814 )
110 Xing-ping LIU*1, 2
Kinetics of cometabolic degradation of 2-chlorophenol and phenol by Pseudomonas putida
In order to address the complex cometabolic degradation of toxic compounds, batch experiments on the biodegradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) and phenol by Pseudomonas putida were carried out. The experimental results show that 2-CP has an inhibitory effect on cell growth and phenol degradation, which demonstrates that the interaction between substrates affects cell growth and substrate degradation. A kinetic model of cell growth and substrate transformation was also developed. The square of the correlation coefficient from the experiment was 0.97, indicating that this model properly simulates the cometabolic degradation of 2-CP and phenol
2009 Vol. 2 (3): 110-120 [Abstract] ( 1639 ) [HTML 0KB] [PDF 237KB] ( 2075 )
Water Science and Engineering
Quarterly:(Start 2008)
ISSN: 1674-2370
CN: 32-1785/TV
Edited by
Editorial Board of Water
Science and Engineering

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Science and Engineering

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