Volume 16 Issue 4
Dec.  2023
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Ahsan Shah, Arun Arjunan, Ahmad Baroutaji, Julia Zakharova. 2023: A review of physicochemical and biological contaminants in drinking water and their impacts on human health. Water Science and Engineering, 16(4): 333-344. doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2023.04.003
Citation: Ahsan Shah, Arun Arjunan, Ahmad Baroutaji, Julia Zakharova. 2023: A review of physicochemical and biological contaminants in drinking water and their impacts on human health. Water Science and Engineering, 16(4): 333-344. doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2023.04.003

A review of physicochemical and biological contaminants in drinking water and their impacts on human health

doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2023.04.003
  • Received Date: 2022-09-23
  • Accepted Date: 2023-03-22
  • Available Online: 2023-12-14
  • Clean drinking water is one of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Despite significant progress in the water purification technology, many regions still lack access to clean water. This paper provides a review of selected water contaminants and their impacts on human health. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and regional standards for key contaminants were used to characterise water quality in the European Union and UK. The concept of safe drinking water was explained based on the non-observed adverse effect level, threshold concentrations for toxic chemicals, and their total daily intake. Various techniques for monitoring water contaminants and the drinking water standards from five different countries, including the UK, USA, Canada, Pakistan and India, were compared to WHO recommended guidelines. The literature on actual water quality in these regions and its potential health impacts was also discussed. Finally, the role of public water suppliers in identifying and monitoring drinking water contaminants in selected developed countries was presented as a potential guideline for developing countries. This review emphasised the need for a comprehensive understanding of water quality and its impacts on human health to ensure access to clean drinking water worldwide.

     

  • loading
  • [1]
    Abeer, N., Khan, S.A., Muhammad, S., Rasool, A., Ahmad, I., 2020. Health risk assessment and provenance of arsenic and heavy metal in drinking water in Islamabad, Pakistan. Environ. Technol. Innovat. 20, 101171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2020.101171.
    [2]
    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 2020. Substance Priority List. ATSDR, Atlanta.
    [3]
    Banna, M.H., Najjaran, H., Sadiq, R., Imran, S.A., Rodriguez, M.J., 2014. Miniaturized water quality monitoring pH and conductivity sensors. Sensor. Actuator. B Chem. 193, 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2013.12.002.
    [4]
    Binnie, C., Kimber, M., Thomas, H., 2018. Basic Water Treatment. ICE Publishing, London.
    [5]
    Blokker, M., Smeets, P., Medema, G., 2018. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of repairs of the drinking water distribution system. Microbial Risk Analysis 8, 22-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mran.2017.12.002.
    [6]
    Bradley, D., Vegh, J., Lee, C., Cao, R., Chan, L., 2018. Assessment of water purification technologies in developing countries. In: Proceedings of 2018 Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology. Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology, Inc., Honolulu, pp. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.23919/PICMET.2018.8481981.
    [7]
    Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), 2012. Water Quality Standards. BIS, New Delhi.
    [8]
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2020a. Drinking Water Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) | Drinking Water | Healthy Water. CDC, Atlanta.
    [9]
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2020b. Drinking Water Standards and Regulations. CDC, Atlanta.
    [10]
    Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST), 2009. Introduction to Drinking Water Quality Testing. CAWST, Calgary.
    [11]
    Chowdhury, S., Mazumder, M.A.J., Al-Attas, O., Husain, T., 2016. Heavy metals in drinking water: Occurrences, implications, and future needs in developing countries. Sci. Total Environ. 569-570, 476-488. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.06.166.
    [12]
    Daud, M.K., Nafees, M., Ali, S., Rizwan, M., Bajws, R.A., Shakoor, M.B., Arshad, M.U., Chatha, S.A.S., Deeba, F., Murad, W. et al., 2017. Drinking water quality status and contamination in Pakistan. BioMed Res. Int. 2017, 7908183. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7908183.
    [13]
    Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA), 2018. Water Treatment Processes. DEFRA, London.
    [14]
    Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI), 2019. Drinking Water Annual Report. DWI, London.
    [15]
    Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI), 2020. Drinking Water Annual Report. DWI, London.
    [16]
    Eliades, D.G., Stavrou, D., Vrachimis, S.G., Panayiotou, C.G., Polycarpou, M.M., 2015. Contamination event detection using multi-level thresholds. Procedia Eng. 119(1), 1429-1438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.08.1003.
    [17]
    Environment Agency (EA), 2019. Drinking Water Protected Areas, United Kingdom. Environment Agency, London.
    [18]
    Fisher, M.B., Guo, A.Z., Tracy, J.W., Prasad, S.K., Cronk, R.D., Browning, E.G., Liang, K.R., Kelly, E.R., Bartram, J.K., 2021. Occurrence of lead and other toxic metals derived from drinking-water systems in three west African countries. Environ. Health Perspect. 129(4), 47012. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7804.
    [19]
    Gall, A.M., Marinas, B.J., Lu, Y., Shisler, J.L., 2015. Waterborne viruses: A barrier to safe drinking water. PLoS Pathog. 11(6), e1004867. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004867.
    [20]
    Government of UK, 2018. The Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations. Government of UK, London.
    [21]
    Gray, N.F., 1999. Water Technology: an Introduction for Scientists and Engineers. Arnold, London.
    [22]
    Hasan, M.K., Shahriar, A., Jim, K.U., 2019. Water pollution in Bangladesh and its impact on public health. Heliyon 5(8), e02145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02145.
    [23]
    Health Canada, 2020. Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines, Government of Canada. Health Canada, Walkerton.
    [24]
    Heibati, M., Stedmon, C.A., Stenroth, K., Rauch, S., Toljander, J., Save-Soderbergh M., Murphy, K.R., 2017. Assessment of drinking water quality at the tap using fluorescence spectroscopy. Water Res. 125, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2017.08.020.
    [25]
    Howe, K.J., Hand, D.W., Crittenden, J.C., Trussell, R.R., Tchobanoglous, G., 2012. Principles of Water Treatment. John Wiley & Son, Hoboken.
    [26]
    Hunter, P.R., MacDonald, A.M., Carter, R.C., 2010. Water supply and health. PLoS Med. 7(11), e1000361. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000361.
    [27]
    Jones, A.N., Bridgeman, J., 2019. A fluorescence-based assessment of the fate of organic matter in water treated using crude/purified Hibiscus seeds as coagulant in drinking water treatment. Sci. Total Environ. 646, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.266.
    [28]
    Kapp, R., 2005. Safe drinking water Act, US. In: Wexler, P. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Toxicology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 752-754. https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-369400-0/00858-9.
    [29]
    Kausley, S.B., Dastane, G.G., Kumar, J.K., Desai, K.S., Doltade, S.B., Pandit, A.B., 2019. Clean water for developing countries: Feasibility of different treatment solutions. In: Nriagu, J. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Environmental Health (second ed.). Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 643-652. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-409548-9.11079-6.
    [30]
    Megersa, M., Beyene, A., Ambelu, A., Woldeab, B., 2014. The use of indigenous plant species for drinking water treatment in developing countries: A review. J. Biodivers. Environ. Sci. (JBES) 5(3), 269-281.
    [31]
    National Committee on Radiation Protection, 1959. Maximum Permissible Body Burdens and Maximum Permissible Concentration of Radionuclides in Air and in Water for Occupational Exposure. Handbook vol. 6. US Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, Washingtong D.C. https://www.keysolutionsinc.com/references/NBS Handbook 69.pdf.
    [32]
    Needleman, H.L., Gunnoe, G., Leviton, A., Reed, R., Peresie, H., Maher, C., Barrett, P., 1979. Deficits in psychologic and classroom performance of children with elevated dentine lead levels. N. Engl. J. Med. 300(13), 689-695. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM197903293001301.
    [33]
    O'Grady, J., Zhang, D., O'Conner, N., Regan, F., 2020. A comprehensive review of catchment water quality monitoring using a tiered framework of integrated sensing technologies. Sci. Total Environ. 765, 142766. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142766.
    [34]
    Office of Water Services (Ofwat), 2021. Water Sector Overview. Ofwat, London.
    [35]
    Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, 2008. National Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ). Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, Islamabad.
    [36]
    Palansooriya, K.N., Yang, Y., Tsang, Y.F., Sarker, B., Hou, D., Cao, X., Meers, E., Rinklebe, J., Kim, K., Ok, Y.S., 2020. Occurrence of contaminants in drinking water sources and the potential of biochar for water quality improvement: A review. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50(6), 549-611. https://doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2019.1629803.
    [37]
    Shahid, N., Zia, Z., Shahid, M., Bakhat, H.F., Anwar, S., Shah, G.M., Ashraf, M.R., 2015. Assessing drinking water quality in Punjab, Pakistan. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 24(6), 2597-2606. https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/41533.
    [38]
    Soukarie, D., Ecochard, V., Salome, L., 2020. DNA-based nanobiosensors for monitoring of water quality. Int. J. Hyg Environ. Health 226, 113485. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2020.113485.
    [39]
    The Open University, 2018. Potable Water Treatment. The Open University, London.
    [40]
    US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2017a. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, Drinking Water Contaminants. EPA, Washington D.C.
    [41]
    US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2017b. Types of Drinking Water Contaminants. EPA, Washingtong D.C.
    [42]
    US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2018. 2018 Edition of the Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories Tables. EPA, Washington D.C.
    [43]
    Valbonesi, P., Profita, M., Vasumini, I., Fabbri, E., 2021. Contaminants of emerging concern in drinking water: Quality assessment by combining chemical and biological analysis. Sci. Total Environ. 758, 143624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143624.
    [44]
    Vashisht, D., Kumar, A., Mehta, S.K., Ibhadon, A., 2020. Analysis of emerging contaminants: A case study of the underground and drinking water samples in chandigarh, India. Environmental Advances 1, 100002. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envadv.2020.100002.
    [45]
    Verma, A.K., Dash, R.R., Bhunia, P., 2012. A review on chemical coagulation/flocculation technologies for removal of colour from textile wastewaters. J. Environ. Manag. 93(1), 154-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.09.012.
    [46]
    WHO, 2011. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (fourth ed.). WHO, Geneva.
    [47]
    WHO, 2017. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. WHO, Geneva.
    [48]
    WHO, 2018. Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage, Treatment Technologies. WHO, Geneva.
    [49]
    Wilkinson, J., Hooda, P.S., Barker, J., Barton, S., Swinden, J., 2017. Occurrence, fate and transformation of emerging contaminants in water: An overarching review of the field. Environ. Pollut. 231, 954-970. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.08.032.
    [50]
    Wu, S., Hu, Y.H., Zuo, D., 2011. Discussion on parameter choice for managing water quality of the drinking water source. Procedia Environmental Sciences 11, 1465-1468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2011.12.220.
    [51]
    Yan, W., Li, J., Bai, X., 2016. Comprehensive assessment and visualized monitoring of urban drinking water quality. Chemometr. Intell. Lab. Syst. 155, 26-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemolab.2016.03.026.
    [52]
    Yang, Y., Ok, Y.S., Kim, K., Kwon, E.E., Tsang, Y.F., 2017. Occurrences and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in drinking water and water/sewage treatment plants: A review. Science of the Total Environment 596-597, 303-320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.102.
    [53]
    Zulkifli, S.N., Rahim, H.A., Lau, W.J., 2018. Detection of contaminants in water supply: A review on state-of-the-art monitoring technologies and their applications. Sensor. Actuator. B Chem. 255, 2657-2689. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2017.09.078.
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(1)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (8) PDF downloads(0) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return