Water Resources
Tidal flats and saltmarshes have been a long-standing research focus because of their high socio-economic and ecological values. The evolution of tidal flatemarsh systems is highly complex due to the intertwined processes operating over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. As a traditional research highlight, the role of regular hydrodynamic processes such as tides, waves, and river flows have been explored comprehensively with fruitful outcomes. Over past decades, the changing environment (e.g., sea level rise, increasing anthropogenic activities, and extreme weather conditions) has attracted more attention with many reported insightful results. More recent advances indicate that biological activities play a critical role in tidal flatemarsh morphodynamics but are still poorly understood. The field of research that connects the biological and physical processes is commonly described as "biogeomorphology" and requires the joint efforts by scientists from multiple disciplines ranging from hydraulics, ecology, and geography to sociology. This review aims to provide a synthesis of the current research status of tidal flatemarsh morphodynamics, with a particular emphasis on the understanding of various processes and feedbacks underlying the development of morphodynamic models. Some future research needs and challenges are identified to facilitate a more sustainable management strategy for tidal flats and saltmarshes under climate change.
Anomalous characteristics of the atmospheric water cycle structure are highly significant to the mechanisms of seasonal-scale meteorological droughts. They also play an important role in the identification of indicative predictors of droughts. To better understand the causes of seasonal meteorological droughts in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (MLRYR), characteristics of the atmospheric water cycle structure at different drought stages were determined using standardized anomalies. The results showed that the total column water vapor (TCWV) was anomalously low during drought occurrence periods. In contrast, there were no anomalous signals at the drought persistence and recovery stages in the MLRYR. Moreover, there was no significant temporal correlation between the TCWV anomaly and seasonal-scale drought index (the 3-month standardized precipitation index (SPI3)). During drought events, water vapor that mainly originated from the Bay of Bengal was transported southwest of the MLRYR. Meanwhile, the anomalous signal of water vapor transport was negative at the drought appearance stage. At the drought persistence stage, the negative anomalous signal was the most significant. Water vapor flux divergence in the MLRYR showed significant positive anomalous signals during drought events, and the signal intensity shifted from an increasing to a decreasing trend at different drought stages. In addition, a significant positive correlation existed between the anomaly of water vapor flux divergence and regional SPI3. Overall, water vapor flux divergence is more predictive of droughts in the MLRYR.
Hydrological, sediment, and bathymetric data of the Shashi Reach in the middle Yangtze River for the period of 1975e2018 were collected, and the characteristics of low water level changes and their impacts on utilization of water depth for navigation were investigated. The results showed that, during the study period, the Shashi Reach riverbed was significantly scoured and incised, with cross-sectional profiles showing overall narrowing and deepening. This indicated a strong potential to improve the water depth of the channel. The analysis of the temporal variation of in-channel topographical features showed that the Taipingkou diara underwent siltation and erosion, with its head gradually scoured and relocated downstream after 2008, and the Sanbatan diara continued to shrink and migrate leftwards. Low water levels with the same flow rate over the study period decreased. For instance, from 2003 to 2020, the water level at the Shashi hydrological station decreased to 1.37 m with a flow rate of 6 000 m3/s. Furthermore, the designed minimum navigable water level of the Shashi Reach was approximately 2.11 m lower than the recommended level. In terms of utilization of the channel water depth, continuous scouring of the river channel is expected to result in a reduction in discharge at the Taipingkou mouth, which will improve the water depth conditions of the channel during the dry season in the Shashi Reach. With several channel regulation projects, the 3.5-m depth of the Shashi Reach would basically be unobstructed. This promotes utilization of the shipping route from the Taipingkou south branch to the Sanbatan north branch as the main navigation channel during the dry season. Considering the factors of current water depth and the clear width limitation of the navigation hole at the Jingzhou Yangtze River Bridge, this route can still be favored as the main navigation channel with a 4.5-m depth during the dry season.
Aquatic Environment
In this study, a microbial consortium isolated from an activated sludge tank of a conventional wastewater treatment plant was immobilized using sodium alginate (SA) as a support material for contaminant biodegradation in wastewater. A volume of 500 mL of activated sludge was immobilized in the SA beads (with a mass concentration of 25 g/L). The resulting SA beads were characterized, introduced into a fluidized bed reactor, fed with 1000 mL of the sample, and characterized again after the treatment process. The SA-immobilized microorganisms were tested first for degradation of organic matter (expressed as chemical oxygen demand) and total phosphorous in domestic wastewater, achieving removal efficiencies of 71% and 93%, respectively, after 12 h. Subsequently, the SA-immobilized microorganisms were tested for degradation of a basic blue 9 (BB9) textile dye in a condition that simulated textile wastewater. The efficiency of the BB9 degradation was found to be as high as 99.5% after 2 h. According to these results, SA-immobilized microorganisms were found to be an environmentally friendly and cost-effective alternative for treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater effluents.
As major contributor to the blue carbon sink, intertidal zones play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle. In recent years, more attention has been given to the carbon cycle in intertidal wetlands. However, due to highly variable and uncertain environmental conditions, it is difficult to clarify the quantitative relationship between soil respiration and environmental factors through in-situ experiments. In this study, the response of soil respiration characteristics to variations in the temperature and water table was investigated using a monitoring apparatus of CO2 flux at the soileair interface in the intertidal zone. The results showed that soil respiration flux was significantly correlated with temperature, and the correlation best fitted the DoseResp function. Meanwhile, the respiration flux was enhanced with the descent of water table, a relationship could be described by a quadratic function. The effect of the water table on soil respiration became more pronounced with the rise of temperature. These results provide significant clarification of the impact of human activities on the carbon cycle in bare intertidal zones and as well as support for numerical simulations of the carbon cycle in bare intertidal zones.
Improvement of wind field hindcasts for tropical cyclones
Yi Pan, Yong-ping Chen, Jiang-xia Li, Xue-lin Ding
2016, 9(1): 58-66.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2016.02.002
[Abstract](1363) [PDF 0KB](1722)
This paper presents a study on the improvement of wind field hindcasts for two typical tropical cyclones, i.e., Fanapi and Meranti, which occurred in 2010. The performance of the three existing models for the hindcasting of cyclone wind fields is first examined, and then two modification methods are proposed to improve the hindcasted results. The first one is the superposition method, which superposes the wind field calculated from the parametric cyclone model on that obtained from the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) reanalysis data. The radius used for the superposition is based on an analysis of the minimum difference between the two wind fields. The other one is the direct modification method, which directly modifies the CCMP reanalysis data according to the ratio of the measured maximum wind speed to the reanalyzed value as well as the distance from the cyclone center. Using these two methods, the problem of underestimation of strong winds in reanalysis data can be overcome. Both methods show considerable improvements in the hindcasting of tropical cyclone wind fields, compared with the cyclone wind model and the reanalysis data.
Evaluation of latest TMPA and CMORPH satellite precipitation products for Yellow River Basin
Shan-hu Jiang, Meng Zhou, Li-liang Ren, Xue-rong Cheng, Peng-ju Zhang
2016, 9(2): 87-96.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2016.06.002
[Abstract](1390) [PDF 0KB](2599)
The main objective of this study was to evaluate four latest global high-resolution satellite precipitation products (TMPA 3B42RT, CMORPH, TMPA 3B42V7, and CMORPH_adj) against gauge observations of the Yellow River Basin from March 2000 to December 2012. The assessment was conducted with several commonly used statistical indices at daily and monthly scales. Results indicate that 3B42V7 and CMORPH_adj perform better than the near real-time products (3B42RT and CMORPH), particularly the 3B42V7 product. The adjustment by gauge data significantly reduces the systematic biases in the research products. Regarding the near real-time datasets, 3B42RT overestimates rainfall over the whole basin, while CMORPH presents a mixed pattern with negative and positive values of relative bias in low- and high-latitude regions, respectively, and CMORPH performs better than 3B42RT on the whole. According to the spatial distribution of statistical indices, these values are optimized in the southeast and decrease toward the northwest, and the trend is similar for the spatial distribution of the mean annual precipitation during the period from 2000 to 2012. This study also reveals that all the four products can effectively detect rainfall events. This study provides useful information about four mainstream satellite products in the Yellow River Basin, and the findings can facilitate the use of global precipitation measurement (GPM) data in the future.
Urban and river flooding: Comparison of flood risk management approaches in the UK and China and an assessment of future knowledge needs
Matteo Rubinato, Andrew Nichols, Yong Peng, Jian-min Zhang, Craig Lashford, Yan-peng Cai, Peng-zhi Lin, Simon Tait
2019, 12(4): 274-283.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2019.12.004
[Abstract](393) [PDF 0KB](363)
Increased urbanisation, economic growth, and long-term climate variability have made both the UK and China more susceptible to urban and river flooding, putting people and property at increased risk. This paper presents a review of the current flooding challenges that are affecting the UK and China and the actions that each country is undertaking to tackle these problems. Particular emphases in this paper are laid on (1) learning from previous flooding events in the UK and China, and (2) which management methodologies are commonly used to reduce flood risk. The paper concludes with a strategic research plan suggested by the authors, together with proposed ways to overcome identified knowledge gaps in flood management. Recommendations briefly comprise the engagement of all stakeholders to ensure a proactive approach to land use planning, early warning systems, and water-sensitive urban design or redesign through more effective policy, multi-level flood models, and data driven models of water quantity and quality.
Application of SWAN+ADCIRC to tide-surge and wave simulation in Gulf of Maine during Patriot’s Day storm
Dong-mei Xie, Qing-ping Zou, John W. Cannon
2016, 9(1): 33-41.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2016.02.003
[Abstract](1300) [PDF 0KB](1375)
The southern coast of the Gulf of Maine in the United States is prone to flooding caused by nor’easters. A state-of-the-art fully-coupled model, the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) model with unstructured grids and the ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) model, was used to study the hydrodynamic response in the Gulf of Maine during the Patriot’s Day storm of 2007, a notable example of nor’easters in this area. The model predictions agree well with the observed tide-surges and waves during this storm event. Waves and circulation in the Gulf of Maine were analyzed. The Georges Bank plays an important role in dissipating wave energy through the bottom friction when waves propagate over the bank from offshore to the inner gulf due to its shallow bathymetry. Wave energy dissipation results in decreasing significant wave height (SWH) in the cross-bank direction and wave radiation stress gradient, which in turn induces changes in currents. While the tidal currents are dominant over the Georges Bank and in the Bay of Fundy, the residual currents generated by the meteorological forcing and waves are significant over the Georges Bank and in the coastal area and can reach 0.3 m/s and 0.2 m/s, respectively. In the vicinity of the coast, the longshore current generated by the surface wind stress and wave radiation stress acting parallel to the coastline is inversely proportional to the water depth and will eventually be limited by the bottom friction. The storm surge level reaches 0.8 m along the western periphery of the Gulf of Maine while the wave set-up due to radiation stress variation reaches 0.2 m. Therefore, it is significant to coastal flooding.
Using multi-satellite microwave remote sensing observations for retrieval of daily surface soil moisture across China
Ke Zhang, Li-jun Chao, Qing-qing Wang, Ying-chun Huang, Rong-hua Liu, Yang Hong, Yong Tu, Wei Qu, Jin-yin Ye
2019, 12(2): 85-97.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2019.06.001
[Abstract](480) [PDF 0KB](475)
    The objective of this study was to retrieve daily composite soil moisture by jointly using brightness temperature observations from multiple operating satellites for near real-time application with better coverage and higher accuracy. Our approach was to first apply the single-channel brightness radiometric algorithm to estimate soil moisture from the respective brightness temperature observations of the SMAP, SMOS, AMSR2, FY3B, and FY3C satellites on the same day and then produce a daily composite dataset by averaging the individual satellite-retrieved soil moisture. We further evaluated our product, the official soil moisture products of the five satellites, and the ensemble mean (i.e., arithmetic mean) of the five official satellite soil moisture products against ground observations from two networks in Central Tibet and Anhui Province, China. The results show that our product outperforms the individual released products of the five satellites and their ensemble means in the two validation areas. The root mean square error (RMSE) values of our product were 0.06 and 0.09 m3/m3 in Central Tibet and Anhui Province, respectively. Relative to the ensemble mean of the five satellite products, our product improves the accuracy by 9.1% and 57.7% in Central Tibet and Anhui Province, respectively. This demonstrates that jointly using brightness temperature observations from multiple satellites to retrieve soil moisture not only improves the spatial coverage of daily observations but also produces better daily composite products.
Biosorption of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution using modified Aloe barbadensis Miller leaf powder
Shweta Gupta, S. K. Sharma, Arinjay Kumar
2019, 12(1): 27-36.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2019.04.003
[Abstract](431) [PDF 0KB](407)
This study aimed to investigate the biosorption potential of Na2CO3-modified Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) leaf (MABL) powder for removal of Ni(II) ions from a synthetic aqueous solution. Effects of various process parameters (pH, equilibrium time, and temperature) were investigated in order to optimize the biosorptive removal. The maximum biosorption capacity of MABL was observed to be 28.986 mg/g at a temperature of 303 K, a biosorbent dose of 0.6 g, a contact time of 90 min, and a pH value of 7. Different kinetic models (the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models) were evaluated. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found to be the best fitted model in this study, with a coefficient of determination of R2 = 0.974. Five different isotherm models (the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) models) were investigated to identify the best-suited isotherm model for the present system. Based on the minimum chi-square value (χ2 = 0.027) and the maximum coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.996), the Langmuir isotherm model was found to represent the system well, indicating the possibility of monolayer biosorption. The sticking probability (S*) was found to be 0.41, suggesting a physisorption mechanism for biosorption of Ni(II) on MABL. The biosorbent was characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential, and BET surface area, in order to understand its morphological and functional characteristics.
Performance assessment of two-dimensional hydraulic models for generation of flood inundation maps in mountain river basins
Juan Pinos, Luis Timbe
2019, 12(1): 11-18.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2019.03.001
[Abstract](369) [PDF 0KB](405)
Hydraulic models for the generation of ?ood inundation maps are not commonly applied in mountain river basins because of the dif?culty in modeling the hydraulic behavior and the complex topography. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the performance of four twodimensional hydraulic models (HEC-RAS 2D, Iber 2D, Flood Modeller 2D, and PCSWMM 2D) with respect to the generation of ?ood inundation maps. The study area covers a 5-km reach of the Santa Barbara River located in the Ecuadorian Andes, at 2330 masl, in Gualaceo. The model's performance was evaluated based on the water surface elevation and ?ood extent, in terms of the mean absolute difference and measure of ?t. The analysis revealed that, for a given case, Iber 2D has the best performance in simulating the water level and inundation for ?ood events with 20- and 50-year return periods, respectively, followed by Flood Modeller 2D, HEC-RAS 2D, and PCSWMM 2D in terms of their performance. Grid resolution, the way in which hydraulic structures are mimicked, the model code, and the default value of the parameters are considered the main sources of prediction uncertainty.
Seismic responses of high concrete face rockfill dams: A case study
Sheng-shui Chen, Zhong-zhi Fu, Kuang-ming Wei, Hua-qiang Han
2016, 9(3): 195-204.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2016.09.002
[Abstract](1031) [PDF 0KB](1540)
Seismic responses of the Zipingpu concrete face rockfill dam were analyzed using the finite element method. The dynamic behavior of rockfill materials was modeled with a viscoelastic model and an empirical permanent strain model. The relevant parameters were obtained either by back analysis using the field observations or by reference to parameters of similar rockfill materials. The acceleration responses of the dam, the distribution of earthquake-induced settlement, and the gap propagation under the concrete slabs caused by the settlement of the dam were analyzed and compared with site investigations or relevant studies. The mechanism of failure of horizontal construction joints was also analyzed based on numerical results and site observations. Numerical results show that the input accelerations were considerably amplified near the top of the dam, and the strong shaking resulted in considerable settlement of the rockfill materials, with a maximum value exceeding 90 cm at the crest. As a result of the settlement of rockfill materials, the third-stage concrete slabs were separated from the cushion layer. The rotation of the cantilever slabs about the contacting regions, under the combined action of gravity and seismic inertial forces, led to the failure of the construction joints and tensile cracks appeared above the construction joints. The effectiveness and limitations of the so-called equivalent linear method are also discussed.
Disinfection of dairy wastewater effluent through solar photocatalysis processes
Mojtaba Afsharnia, Mojtaba Kianmehr, Hamed Biglari, Abdollah Dargahi, Abdolreza Karimi
2018, 11(3): 214-219.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2018.10.001
[Abstract](575) [PDF 0KB](452)
Due to the strict regulations and reuse policies that govern wastewater’s use as an irrigation water resource for agricultural purposes, especially in dry climates, optimization of the disinfection process is of the utmost importance. The effects of solar radiation along with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles applied to optimization of the photolysis and photocatalysis processes for inactivating heterotrophic bacteria were investigated. Temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen fluctuations in the dairy wastewater effluent treated by activated sludge were examined. In addition, different dosages of TiO2 were tested in the solar photocatalysis (ph-C S) and concentrated solar photocatalysis (ph-C CS) processes. The results show that the disinfection efficiencies of the solar photolysis (ph-L S) and concentrated solar photolysis (ph-L CS) processes after 30 minutes were about 10.5% and 68.9%, respectively, and that the ph-C S and ph-C CS processes inactivated 41% and 97% of the heterotrophic bacteria after 30 minutes, respectively. The pH variation in these processes was negligible. Using the ph-L CS and ph-C CS processes, the synergistic effect between the optical and thermal inactivation caused complete disinfection after three hours. However, disinfection was faster in the ph-C CS process than in the ph-L CS process. Significant correlations were found between the disinfection efficiency and the variation of the dissolved oxygen concentration in the ph-C S and ph-C CS processes, while the correlations between the disinfection efficiency and temperature variation were not significant in the ph-L S and ph-C S processes. Moreover, the oxygen consumption rate was greatest (3.2 mg?L-1) in the ph-C CS process. Hence, it could be concluded that ph-C CS is an efficient photocatalysis process for disinfection of dairy wastewater effluent.
Numerical analysis of rapid drawdown: Applications in real cases
Eduardo E. Alonso, Núria M. Pinyol
2016, 9(3): 175-182.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2016.11.003
[Abstract](1038) [PDF 0KB](1451)
In this paper, the rapid drawdown scenario is analyzed by means of numerical examples as well as modeling of real cases with in situ measurements. The aim of the study is to evaluate different approaches available for calculating pore water pressure distributions during and after a drawdown. To do that, a single slope subjected to a drawdown is first analyzed under different calculation alternatives, and numerical results are discussed. Simple methods, such as the undrained analysis and pure flow analysis, implicitly assuming a rigid soil skeleton, lead to significant errors in pore water pressure distributions when compared with the coupled flow-deformation analysis. In the second case study, a similar analysis is performed for the upstream slope of the Glen Shira Dam, Scotland, and numerical results are compared with field measurements during a controlled drawdown. Field records indicate that classical undrained calculations are conservative but unrealistic. Then, a recent case of a major landslide triggered by a rapid drawdown in a reservoir is interpreted. A key aspect of the case is the correct characterization of permeability of a representative soil profile. This is achieved by combining laboratory test results and a back analysis of pore water pressure time records during a period of reservoir water level fluctuations. The results highlight the difficulty of predicting whether the pore water pressure is overestimated or underestimated when using simplified approaches, and it is concluded that predicting the pore water pressure distribution in a slope after rapid drawdown requires a coupled flow-deformation analysis in saturated and unsaturated porous media.
A simple formula for predicting settling velocity of sediment particles
Song Zhiyao, Wu Tingting, Xu Fumin, Li Ruijie
2008, 1(1): 37-43 .   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2008.01.005
[Abstract](2743) [PDF 0KB](121)
Based on the general relationship described by Cheng between the drag coefficient and the Reynolds number of a particle, a new relationship between the Reynolds number and a dimensionless particle parameter is proposed. Using a trial-and-error procedure to minimize errors, the coefficients were determined and a formula was developed for predicting the settling velocity of natural sediment particles. This formula has higher prediction accuracy than other published formulas and it is applicable to all Reynolds numbers less than 2×105.
Calculation of passive earth pressure of cohesive soil  based on Culmann’s method
Hai-feng LU, Bao-yuan YUAN
2011, 4(1): 101-109.   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2011.01.010
[Abstract](3559) [PDF 0KB](108)
Based on the sliding plane hypothesis of Coulumb earth pressure theory, a new method for calculation of the passive earth pressure of cohesive soil was constructed with Culmann’s graphical construction. The influences of the cohesive force, adhesive force, and the fill surface form were considered in this method. In order to obtain the passive earth pressure and sliding plane angle, a program based on the sliding surface assumption was developed with the VB.NET programming language. The calculated results from this method were basically the same as those from the Rankine theory and Coulumb theory formulas. This method is conceptually clear, and the corresponding formulas given in this paper are simple and convenient for application when the fill surface form is complex.   
Modeling atrazine transport in soil columns with HYDRUS-1D
2011, 4(3): 258-269.   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2011.03.003
[Abstract](2984) [PDF 0KB](111)
Both physical and chemical processes affect the fate and transport of herbicides. It is useful to simulate these processes with computer programs to predict solute movement. Simulations were run with HYDRUS-1D to identify the sorption and degradation parameters of atrazine through calibration from the breakthrough curves (BTCs). Data from undisturbed and disturbed soil column experiments were compared and analyzed using the dual-porosity model. The study results show that the values of dispersivity are slightly lower in disturbed columns, suggesting that the more heterogeneous the structure is, the higher the dispersivity. Sorption parameters also show slight variability, which is attributed to the differences in soil properties, experimental conditions and methods, or other ecological factors. For both of the columns, the degradation rates were similar. Potassium bromide was used as a conservative non-reactive tracer to characterize the water movement in columns. Atrazine BTCs exhibited significant tailing and asymmetry, indicating non-equilibrium sorption during solute transport. The dual-porosity model was verified to best fit the BTCs of the column experiments. Greater or lesser concentration of atrazine spreading to the bottom of the columns indicated risk of groundwater contamination. Overall, HYDRUS-1D successfully simulated the atrazine transport in soil columns.
Analysis of dynamic wave model for flood routing in natural rivers
Reza BARATI, Sajjad RAHIMI, Gholam Hossein AKBARI
2012, 5(3): 243-258.   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2012.03.001
[Abstract](3307) [PDF 0KB](112)
 Flooding is a common natural disaster that causes enormous economic, social, and human losses. Of various flood routing methods, the dynamic wave model is one of the best approaches for the prediction of the characteristics of floods during their propagations in natural rivers because all of the terms of the momentum equation are considered in the model. However, no significant research has been conducted on how the model sensitivity affects the accuracy of the downstream hydrograph. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the input parameters of the dynamic wave model was performed through field applications in natural rivers and routing experiments in artificial channels using the graphical multi-parametric sensitivity analysis (GMPSA). The results indicate that the effects of input parameter errors on the output results are more significant in special situations, such as lower values of Manning’s roughness coefficient and/or a steeper bed slope on the characteristics of a design hydrograph, larger values of the skewness factor and/or time to peak on the channel characteristics, larger values of Manning’s roughness coefficient and/or the bed slope on the space step, and lower values of Manning’s roughness coefficient and/or a steeper bed slope on the time step and weighting factor.
Orifice plate cavitation mechanism and its influencing factors
Wan-zheng AI, Tian-ming DING
2010, 3(3): 321-330.   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2010.03.008
[Abstract](3430) [PDF 0KB](100)
The orifice plate energy dissipater is an economic and highly efficient dissipater. However, there is a risk of cavitaion around the orifice plate flow. In order to provide references for engineering practice, we examined the cavitation mechanism around the orifice plate and its influencing factors by utilizing mathematical analysis methods to analyze the flow conditions around the orifice plate in view of gas bubble dynamics. Through the research presented in this paper, the following can be observed: The critical radius and the critical pressure of the gas nucleus in orifice plate flow increase with its initial state parameter ; the development speed of bubbles stabilizes at a certain value after experiencing a peak value and a small valley value; and the orifice plate cavitation is closely related to the distribution of the gas nucleus in flow. For computing the orifice plate cavitation number, we ought to take into account the effects of pressure fluctuation. The development time of the gas nucleus from the initial radius to the critical radius is about 10-7-10-5 s; therefore, the gas nucleus has sufficient time to develop into bubbles in the negative half-cycle of flow fluctuation. The orifice critical cavitation number is closely related to the orifice plate size, and especially closely related with the ratio of the orifice plate radius to the tunnel radius. The approximate formula for the critical cavitation number of the square orifice plate that only considers the main influencing factor was obtained by model experiments.
Modified theoretical stage-discharge relation for circular sharp-crested weirs
2012, 5(1): 26-33.   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2012.01.003
[Abstract](3025) [PDF 0KB](120)
A circular sharp-crested weir is a circular control section used for measuring flow in open channels, reservoirs, and tanks. As flow measuring devices in open channels, these weirs are placed perpendicular to the sides and bottoms of straight-approach channels. Considering the complex patterns of flow passing over circular sharp-crested weirs, an equation having experimental correlation coefficients was used to extract a stage-discharge relation for weirs. Assuming the occurrence of critical flow over the weir crest, a theoretical stage-discharge relation was obtained in this study by solving two extracted non-linear equations. To study the precision of the theoretical stage-discharge relation, 58 experiments were performed on six circular weirs with different diameters and crest heights in a 30 cm-wide flume. The results show that, for each stage above the weirs, the theoretically calculated discharge is less than the measured discharge, and this difference increases with the stage. Finally, the theoretical stage-discharge relation was modified by exerting a correction coefficient which is a function of the ratio of the upstream flow depth to the weir crest height. The results show that the modified stage-discharge relation is in good agreement with the measured results.
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Volume 15,Issue 2, Jun. 2022

Editor-in-ChiefChao Wang

Edited byEditorial Board of Water Science and Engineering

Distributed byEditorial Office of Water Science and Engineering