Water Resources
To better understand the characteristics and mechanisms of droughts at different drought stages, this study selected the Xiangjiang River Basin in China as the study area, and evaluated soil moisture (SM) at different depths for drought monitoring, through SM data simulated with the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model. To solve the problem of unreasonable drought/wetness classifications based on the soil moisture anomaly percentage index (SMAPI), an improved soil moisture anomaly percentage index (ISMAPI) was developed by introducing the Box-Cox transformation. The drought/wetness frequency generated by ISMAPI demonstrated preferable spatial comparability in comparison with those from SMAPI. The lag time of ISMAPI relative to the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index was closely related to soil depth, and was characterized by a fast response in shallow soil layers and a relatively slow response in deep soil layers. SM in shallow soil layers provided a measure for monitoring short-term droughts, whereas SM in deep soil layers provided a better measure for long-term persistent drought events. Furthermore, the occurrence and mitigation time of drought events identified by SM in deep soil layers usually lagged behind that identified by SM in shallow soil layers. Compared with deep SM, SM in shallow soil layers responded faster to meteorological anomalies, thereby resulting in shorter periods of SM persistence in shallow soil layers than in deep soil layers. This can explain the differences of SM at different depths in drought monitoring.
To improve the accuracy of hydrological simulations in the groundwater overexploitation zone of North China, it is necessary to study the characteristics of shallow aquifer recharge on daily scale. Three shallow aquifer recharge indices were used to quantify shallow aquifer recharge in two ways. The recharge coefficient was used to quantify the amount of shallow aquifer recharge. The recharge duration and water table rise coefficient were used to quantify the recharge temporal process. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient and regression analysis were used to determine the relationships between aquifer water table depth (WTD), rainfall, and shallow aquifer recharge. The Jiangjiang River Basin, a tributary of the Haihe River, was selected as the study area. The results showed that the recharge coefficient first increased, then decreased, and finally leveled off as WTD increased. When WTD was between 5 and 6 m, the recharge coefficient reached its maximum (approximately 0.3). When WTD was greater than 10 m, the recharge coefficient remained stable (around 0.12). With regard to the sources and forms of recharge, preferential flow was dominant in the areas near the extraction wells. In contrast, plug flow became dominant in the areas distant from the wells. With the reduction of rainfall duration, the proportion of preferential flow contributing to aquifer recharge increased. With the increase of rainfall amount, the duration of aquifer recharge lengthened.
Aquatic Environment
This study evaluated the influence of the type and dose of coagulants on the removal of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the coagulation process. The effects of coagulant type and dose in reducing water turbidity, colour, and the total content of organic compounds were also assessed. The surface water samples had the turbidity of 9.3-11.2 NTU and colour of 25-35 mg/L. The content of organic compounds determined with total organic carbon (TOC) was 9.2-12.5 mg/L. For the coagulation process, pre-hydrolyzed polyaluminium chloride (PACl) coagulants with basicity values of 41%, 65%, and 85% were used. This shows that water purification performance increased as the basicity of the coagulant increased. When the coagulant with the highest basicity and a dose of 3 mg Al per litre was used, a removal efficiency of 83% in the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was achieved, and efficiencies for the remaining 15 PAHs ranged from 80% to 91%. These values were 4%-9% higher than those achieved using other coagulants. The removal efficiencies of turbidity, colour, and TOC were 80%, 60%, and 35%, respectively. The water purification performance, including PAH removal, was improved with the increased coagulant dose. Increasing the coagulant dose had more pronounced effects on PAH removal than on the reduction of turbidity and TOC.
A passive sampling method was employed for time-integrative monitoring of five pharmaceuticals and one transformation product (TP) in rivers impacted by sewage treatment plants, in parallel with traditional sampling methods. Target pharmaceuticals, other than naproxen, were detected through passive sampling, with average concentrations in the range of 0.2-5.8 ng/L, and through active sampling, with average concentrations in the range of 0.5-21.7 ng/L. Meanwhile, the ecotoxicological effects of pharmaceuticals and TPs were assessed, including the formation of zebrafish embryos and expression of target genes, upon exposure of zebrafish embryos to sulfadiazine (SDZ) and its TP sulfacetamide, as well as two artificial mixed rivers. The exposure results showed negligible impacts of environmental levels of SDZ, while mimic mixture exposure disturbed the development of embryos and led to the alteration of the socs3, TNF-α, and IL-1β genes. The findings of this study indicated that although pharmaceutical concentrations in rivers receiving treated wastewater are low, the potential ecological effects on the aquatic environment require more attentions.
Ferrous sulfide (FeS) nanoparticles constitute an effective hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) treatment reagent. However, FeS nanoparticles aggregate easily, significantly limiting their engineering applicability. To overcome this shortcoming and further improve Cr(VI) removal efficiency, this study used tannic acid (TA) to modify FeS nanoparticles. The results demonstrated that TA-modified FeS nanoparticles, TA-nano-FeS, had a significantly reduced tendency to agglomerate, and maintained particle diameters of 10-100 nm, which were much shorter than diameters of FeS nanoparticles. In addition, TA-nano-FeS could combine the surface-active functional groups of TA. The maximum removal capacity of TA-nano-FeS was 381.04 mg/g, which was 2.92 and 1.83 times higher than those of TA and nano-FeS, respectively. Furthermore, the acidic condition was more beneficial for Cr(VI) removal, and the coexisting cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) slightly decreased the removal efficiency of Cr(VI). Adsorption, reduction, and co-precipitation were the removal mechanisms, and the reaction products included FeCr2O4, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, Cr(OH)3, and S8. The results provided valuable information for the practical application of TA-nano-FeS in Cr(VI) removal.
Evaluation of latest TMPA and CMORPH satellite precipitation products for Yellow River Basin
Shan-hu Jiang, Meng Zhou, Li-liang Ren, Xue-rong Cheng, Peng-ju Zhang
2016, 9(2): 87-96.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2016.06.002
[Abstract](1281) [PDF 0KB](2599)
The main objective of this study was to evaluate four latest global high-resolution satellite precipitation products (TMPA 3B42RT, CMORPH, TMPA 3B42V7, and CMORPH_adj) against gauge observations of the Yellow River Basin from March 2000 to December 2012. The assessment was conducted with several commonly used statistical indices at daily and monthly scales. Results indicate that 3B42V7 and CMORPH_adj perform better than the near real-time products (3B42RT and CMORPH), particularly the 3B42V7 product. The adjustment by gauge data significantly reduces the systematic biases in the research products. Regarding the near real-time datasets, 3B42RT overestimates rainfall over the whole basin, while CMORPH presents a mixed pattern with negative and positive values of relative bias in low- and high-latitude regions, respectively, and CMORPH performs better than 3B42RT on the whole. According to the spatial distribution of statistical indices, these values are optimized in the southeast and decrease toward the northwest, and the trend is similar for the spatial distribution of the mean annual precipitation during the period from 2000 to 2012. This study also reveals that all the four products can effectively detect rainfall events. This study provides useful information about four mainstream satellite products in the Yellow River Basin, and the findings can facilitate the use of global precipitation measurement (GPM) data in the future.
Improvement of wind field hindcasts for tropical cyclones
Yi Pan, Yong-ping Chen, Jiang-xia Li, Xue-lin Ding
2016, 9(1): 58-66.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2016.02.002
[Abstract](1259) [PDF 0KB](1721)
This paper presents a study on the improvement of wind field hindcasts for two typical tropical cyclones, i.e., Fanapi and Meranti, which occurred in 2010. The performance of the three existing models for the hindcasting of cyclone wind fields is first examined, and then two modification methods are proposed to improve the hindcasted results. The first one is the superposition method, which superposes the wind field calculated from the parametric cyclone model on that obtained from the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) reanalysis data. The radius used for the superposition is based on an analysis of the minimum difference between the two wind fields. The other one is the direct modification method, which directly modifies the CCMP reanalysis data according to the ratio of the measured maximum wind speed to the reanalyzed value as well as the distance from the cyclone center. Using these two methods, the problem of underestimation of strong winds in reanalysis data can be overcome. Both methods show considerable improvements in the hindcasting of tropical cyclone wind fields, compared with the cyclone wind model and the reanalysis data.
Application of SWAN+ADCIRC to tide-surge and wave simulation in Gulf of Maine during Patriot’s Day storm
Dong-mei Xie, Qing-ping Zou, John W. Cannon
2016, 9(1): 33-41.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2016.02.003
[Abstract](1126) [PDF 0KB](1375)
The southern coast of the Gulf of Maine in the United States is prone to flooding caused by nor’easters. A state-of-the-art fully-coupled model, the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) model with unstructured grids and the ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) model, was used to study the hydrodynamic response in the Gulf of Maine during the Patriot’s Day storm of 2007, a notable example of nor’easters in this area. The model predictions agree well with the observed tide-surges and waves during this storm event. Waves and circulation in the Gulf of Maine were analyzed. The Georges Bank plays an important role in dissipating wave energy through the bottom friction when waves propagate over the bank from offshore to the inner gulf due to its shallow bathymetry. Wave energy dissipation results in decreasing significant wave height (SWH) in the cross-bank direction and wave radiation stress gradient, which in turn induces changes in currents. While the tidal currents are dominant over the Georges Bank and in the Bay of Fundy, the residual currents generated by the meteorological forcing and waves are significant over the Georges Bank and in the coastal area and can reach 0.3 m/s and 0.2 m/s, respectively. In the vicinity of the coast, the longshore current generated by the surface wind stress and wave radiation stress acting parallel to the coastline is inversely proportional to the water depth and will eventually be limited by the bottom friction. The storm surge level reaches 0.8 m along the western periphery of the Gulf of Maine while the wave set-up due to radiation stress variation reaches 0.2 m. Therefore, it is significant to coastal flooding.
Seismic responses of high concrete face rockfill dams: A case study
Sheng-shui Chen, Zhong-zhi Fu, Kuang-ming Wei, Hua-qiang Han
2016, 9(3): 195-204.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2016.09.002
[Abstract](885) [PDF 0KB](1538)
Seismic responses of the Zipingpu concrete face rockfill dam were analyzed using the finite element method. The dynamic behavior of rockfill materials was modeled with a viscoelastic model and an empirical permanent strain model. The relevant parameters were obtained either by back analysis using the field observations or by reference to parameters of similar rockfill materials. The acceleration responses of the dam, the distribution of earthquake-induced settlement, and the gap propagation under the concrete slabs caused by the settlement of the dam were analyzed and compared with site investigations or relevant studies. The mechanism of failure of horizontal construction joints was also analyzed based on numerical results and site observations. Numerical results show that the input accelerations were considerably amplified near the top of the dam, and the strong shaking resulted in considerable settlement of the rockfill materials, with a maximum value exceeding 90 cm at the crest. As a result of the settlement of rockfill materials, the third-stage concrete slabs were separated from the cushion layer. The rotation of the cantilever slabs about the contacting regions, under the combined action of gravity and seismic inertial forces, led to the failure of the construction joints and tensile cracks appeared above the construction joints. The effectiveness and limitations of the so-called equivalent linear method are also discussed.
Disinfection of dairy wastewater effluent through solar photocatalysis processes
Mojtaba Afsharnia, Mojtaba Kianmehr, Hamed Biglari, Abdollah Dargahi, Abdolreza Karimi
2018, 11(3): 214-219.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2018.10.001
[Abstract](443) [PDF 0KB](452)
Due to the strict regulations and reuse policies that govern wastewater’s use as an irrigation water resource for agricultural purposes, especially in dry climates, optimization of the disinfection process is of the utmost importance. The effects of solar radiation along with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles applied to optimization of the photolysis and photocatalysis processes for inactivating heterotrophic bacteria were investigated. Temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen fluctuations in the dairy wastewater effluent treated by activated sludge were examined. In addition, different dosages of TiO2 were tested in the solar photocatalysis (ph-C S) and concentrated solar photocatalysis (ph-C CS) processes. The results show that the disinfection efficiencies of the solar photolysis (ph-L S) and concentrated solar photolysis (ph-L CS) processes after 30 minutes were about 10.5% and 68.9%, respectively, and that the ph-C S and ph-C CS processes inactivated 41% and 97% of the heterotrophic bacteria after 30 minutes, respectively. The pH variation in these processes was negligible. Using the ph-L CS and ph-C CS processes, the synergistic effect between the optical and thermal inactivation caused complete disinfection after three hours. However, disinfection was faster in the ph-C CS process than in the ph-L CS process. Significant correlations were found between the disinfection efficiency and the variation of the dissolved oxygen concentration in the ph-C S and ph-C CS processes, while the correlations between the disinfection efficiency and temperature variation were not significant in the ph-L S and ph-C S processes. Moreover, the oxygen consumption rate was greatest (3.2 mg?L-1) in the ph-C CS process. Hence, it could be concluded that ph-C CS is an efficient photocatalysis process for disinfection of dairy wastewater effluent.
Main issues in research and practice of environmental protection for water conservancy and hydropower projects in China
Ang Chen, Miao Wu, Kai-qi Chen, Zhi-yu Sun, Chen Shen, Peng-yuan Wang
2016, 9(4): 312-323.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2017.01.008
[Abstract](1131) [PDF 0KB](1764)
In this paper, we generally summarize the main issues in the operational period of water conservancy and hydropower projects in China over the past several decades. First, the adverse impacts of these projects since the technical guidelines were proposed in 2006 are analyzed. Then, combined with projects and experience from 2006 to 2014, the main issues from four aspects are summarized: (1) There exist many questions in the design and construction of fishways, which are useful for fish migration, and the migration effects are not as expected. (2) Temperature stratification impacting the downstream fish is the major impact of temperature, and alters the fish spawning in the reproduction season. (3) Ecological base flow has been one of the primary questions of the last 30 years in China, the greatest related difficulty being quantification of the amount and flow process necessary to satisfy fish life history. (4) Fish habitat protection and restoration are the most popular topics in recent years with the development of river ecosystem restoration. Fish habitat loss due to the impacts of dam construction and habitat fragmentation has become more and more serious. These four issues are now the main difficulties in water project management, and interact with each other to bear combined effects on river ecosystems. The issues of eco-hydraulic consideration in the design period are the key factors. Finally, the future priorities of research and practice of environmental protection for water conservancy and hydropower projects in China are proposed. The main purposes of this paper are to enhance the scientific research, monitoring, and assessment of operating effectiveness.
Fenton-like oxidation of azo dye in aqueous solution using magnetic Fe3O4-MnO2 nanocomposites as catalysts
Zhen-dong Fang, Kai Zhang, Jie Liu, Jun-yu Fan, Zhi-wei Zhao
2017, 10(4): 326-333.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2017.10.005
[Abstract](531) [PDF 0KB](1085)
In order to overcome the drawback of the low degree of separation from an aqueous solution of MnO2, Fe3O4-MnO2 core-shell nanocomposites were used as heterogeneous Fenton-like catalysts for the removal of acid orange 7. On the basis of the catalyst characterization, the catalytic ability of the as-synthesized nanocomposites was examined. The results showed that Fe3O4-MnO2 core-shell nanocomposites had greater catalytic ability than Fe3O4 or MnO2 used alone. Meanwhile, the catalyst dosage, H2O2 dosage, temperature, and initial pH had significant effects on the removal of acid orange 7. A high degree of stability and reusability were exhibited by Fe3O4-MnO2 core-shell nanocomposites. Both HO• and HO2• were generated in the reaction and HO• was the main radical for the removal of acid orange 7. A mechanism for H2O2 catalytic decomposition using Fe3O4-MnO2 core-shell nanocomposites to produce HO• is proposed.
Using multi-satellite microwave remote sensing observations for retrieval of daily surface soil moisture across China
Ke Zhang, Li-jun Chao, Qing-qing Wang, Ying-chun Huang, Rong-hua Liu, Yang Hong, Yong Tu, Wei Qu, Jin-yin Ye
2019, 12(2): 85-97.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2019.06.001
[Abstract](319) [PDF 0KB](475)
    The objective of this study was to retrieve daily composite soil moisture by jointly using brightness temperature observations from multiple operating satellites for near real-time application with better coverage and higher accuracy. Our approach was to first apply the single-channel brightness radiometric algorithm to estimate soil moisture from the respective brightness temperature observations of the SMAP, SMOS, AMSR2, FY3B, and FY3C satellites on the same day and then produce a daily composite dataset by averaging the individual satellite-retrieved soil moisture. We further evaluated our product, the official soil moisture products of the five satellites, and the ensemble mean (i.e., arithmetic mean) of the five official satellite soil moisture products against ground observations from two networks in Central Tibet and Anhui Province, China. The results show that our product outperforms the individual released products of the five satellites and their ensemble means in the two validation areas. The root mean square error (RMSE) values of our product were 0.06 and 0.09 m3/m3 in Central Tibet and Anhui Province, respectively. Relative to the ensemble mean of the five satellite products, our product improves the accuracy by 9.1% and 57.7% in Central Tibet and Anhui Province, respectively. This demonstrates that jointly using brightness temperature observations from multiple satellites to retrieve soil moisture not only improves the spatial coverage of daily observations but also produces better daily composite products.
Numerical analysis of rapid drawdown: Applications in real cases
Eduardo E. Alonso, Núria M. Pinyol
2016, 9(3): 175-182.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2016.11.003
[Abstract](924) [PDF 0KB](1451)
In this paper, the rapid drawdown scenario is analyzed by means of numerical examples as well as modeling of real cases with in situ measurements. The aim of the study is to evaluate different approaches available for calculating pore water pressure distributions during and after a drawdown. To do that, a single slope subjected to a drawdown is first analyzed under different calculation alternatives, and numerical results are discussed. Simple methods, such as the undrained analysis and pure flow analysis, implicitly assuming a rigid soil skeleton, lead to significant errors in pore water pressure distributions when compared with the coupled flow-deformation analysis. In the second case study, a similar analysis is performed for the upstream slope of the Glen Shira Dam, Scotland, and numerical results are compared with field measurements during a controlled drawdown. Field records indicate that classical undrained calculations are conservative but unrealistic. Then, a recent case of a major landslide triggered by a rapid drawdown in a reservoir is interpreted. A key aspect of the case is the correct characterization of permeability of a representative soil profile. This is achieved by combining laboratory test results and a back analysis of pore water pressure time records during a period of reservoir water level fluctuations. The results highlight the difficulty of predicting whether the pore water pressure is overestimated or underestimated when using simplified approaches, and it is concluded that predicting the pore water pressure distribution in a slope after rapid drawdown requires a coupled flow-deformation analysis in saturated and unsaturated porous media.
Estimation of non-point source pollution loads with flux method in Danjiangkou Reservoir area, China
Xiao-kang Xin, Wei Yin, Ke-feng Li
2017, 10(2): 134-142.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2017.05.001
[Abstract](621) [PDF 0KB](1518)
The estimation of non-point source pollution loads into the Danjiangkou Reservoir is highly significant to environmental protection in the watershed. In order to overcome the drawbacks of traditional watershed numerical models, a base flow separation method was established coupled with a digital filtering method and a flux method. The digital filtering method has been used to separate the base flows of the Hanjiang, Tianhe, Duhe, Danjiang, Laoguan, and Qihe rivers. Based on daily discharge, base flow, and pollutant concentration data, the flux method was used to calculate the point source pollution load and non-point source pollution load. The results show that: (1) In the year 2013, the total inflow of the six rivers mentioned above accounted for 95.9% of the total inflow to the Danjiangkou Reservoir. The total pollution loads of chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) and total phosphorous (TP) from the six rivers were 58.20 × 103 t and 1.863 × 103 t, respectively, and the non-point source pollution loads were 39.82 × 103 t and 1.544 × 103 t, respectively, indicating that the non-point source pollution is a major factor (with a contribution rate of 68.4% for CODMn and 82.9% for TP). (2) The Hanjiang River is the most significant contributor of pollution loads to the Danjiangkou Reservoir, and its CODMn and TP contribution rates reached 79.3% and 83.2%, respectively. The Duhe River took the second place. (3) Non-point source pollution mainly occurred in the wet season in 2013, accounting for 80.8% and 90.9% of the total pollution loads of CODMn and TP, respectively. It is concluded that the emphasis of pollution control should be placed on non-point source pollution.
A simple formula for predicting settling velocity of sediment particles
Song Zhiyao, Wu Tingting, Xu Fumin, Li Ruijie
2008, 1(1): 37-43 .   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2008.01.005
[Abstract](2539) [PDF 0KB](42)
Based on the general relationship described by Cheng between the drag coefficient and the Reynolds number of a particle, a new relationship between the Reynolds number and a dimensionless particle parameter is proposed. Using a trial-and-error procedure to minimize errors, the coefficients were determined and a formula was developed for predicting the settling velocity of natural sediment particles. This formula has higher prediction accuracy than other published formulas and it is applicable to all Reynolds numbers less than 2×105.
Calculation of passive earth pressure of cohesive soil  based on Culmann’s method
Hai-feng LU, Bao-yuan YUAN
2011, 4(1): 101-109.   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2011.01.010
[Abstract](3402) [PDF 0KB](48)
Based on the sliding plane hypothesis of Coulumb earth pressure theory, a new method for calculation of the passive earth pressure of cohesive soil was constructed with Culmann’s graphical construction. The influences of the cohesive force, adhesive force, and the fill surface form were considered in this method. In order to obtain the passive earth pressure and sliding plane angle, a program based on the sliding surface assumption was developed with the VB.NET programming language. The calculated results from this method were basically the same as those from the Rankine theory and Coulumb theory formulas. This method is conceptually clear, and the corresponding formulas given in this paper are simple and convenient for application when the fill surface form is complex.   
Modeling atrazine transport in soil columns with HYDRUS-1D
2011, 4(3): 258-269.   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2011.03.003
[Abstract](2825) [PDF 0KB](44)
Both physical and chemical processes affect the fate and transport of herbicides. It is useful to simulate these processes with computer programs to predict solute movement. Simulations were run with HYDRUS-1D to identify the sorption and degradation parameters of atrazine through calibration from the breakthrough curves (BTCs). Data from undisturbed and disturbed soil column experiments were compared and analyzed using the dual-porosity model. The study results show that the values of dispersivity are slightly lower in disturbed columns, suggesting that the more heterogeneous the structure is, the higher the dispersivity. Sorption parameters also show slight variability, which is attributed to the differences in soil properties, experimental conditions and methods, or other ecological factors. For both of the columns, the degradation rates were similar. Potassium bromide was used as a conservative non-reactive tracer to characterize the water movement in columns. Atrazine BTCs exhibited significant tailing and asymmetry, indicating non-equilibrium sorption during solute transport. The dual-porosity model was verified to best fit the BTCs of the column experiments. Greater or lesser concentration of atrazine spreading to the bottom of the columns indicated risk of groundwater contamination. Overall, HYDRUS-1D successfully simulated the atrazine transport in soil columns.
Analysis of dynamic wave model for flood routing in natural rivers
Reza BARATI, Sajjad RAHIMI, Gholam Hossein AKBARI
2012, 5(3): 243-258.   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2012.03.001
[Abstract](3149) [PDF 0KB](46)
 Flooding is a common natural disaster that causes enormous economic, social, and human losses. Of various flood routing methods, the dynamic wave model is one of the best approaches for the prediction of the characteristics of floods during their propagations in natural rivers because all of the terms of the momentum equation are considered in the model. However, no significant research has been conducted on how the model sensitivity affects the accuracy of the downstream hydrograph. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the input parameters of the dynamic wave model was performed through field applications in natural rivers and routing experiments in artificial channels using the graphical multi-parametric sensitivity analysis (GMPSA). The results indicate that the effects of input parameter errors on the output results are more significant in special situations, such as lower values of Manning’s roughness coefficient and/or a steeper bed slope on the characteristics of a design hydrograph, larger values of the skewness factor and/or time to peak on the channel characteristics, larger values of Manning’s roughness coefficient and/or the bed slope on the space step, and lower values of Manning’s roughness coefficient and/or a steeper bed slope on the time step and weighting factor.
Orifice plate cavitation mechanism and its influencing factors
Wan-zheng AI, Tian-ming DING
2010, 3(3): 321-330.   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2010.03.008
[Abstract](3279) [PDF 0KB](39)
The orifice plate energy dissipater is an economic and highly efficient dissipater. However, there is a risk of cavitaion around the orifice plate flow. In order to provide references for engineering practice, we examined the cavitation mechanism around the orifice plate and its influencing factors by utilizing mathematical analysis methods to analyze the flow conditions around the orifice plate in view of gas bubble dynamics. Through the research presented in this paper, the following can be observed: The critical radius and the critical pressure of the gas nucleus in orifice plate flow increase with its initial state parameter ; the development speed of bubbles stabilizes at a certain value after experiencing a peak value and a small valley value; and the orifice plate cavitation is closely related to the distribution of the gas nucleus in flow. For computing the orifice plate cavitation number, we ought to take into account the effects of pressure fluctuation. The development time of the gas nucleus from the initial radius to the critical radius is about 10-7-10-5 s; therefore, the gas nucleus has sufficient time to develop into bubbles in the negative half-cycle of flow fluctuation. The orifice critical cavitation number is closely related to the orifice plate size, and especially closely related with the ratio of the orifice plate radius to the tunnel radius. The approximate formula for the critical cavitation number of the square orifice plate that only considers the main influencing factor was obtained by model experiments.
Modified theoretical stage-discharge relation for circular sharp-crested weirs
2012, 5(1): 26-33.   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2012.01.003
[Abstract](2863) [PDF 0KB](52)
A circular sharp-crested weir is a circular control section used for measuring flow in open channels, reservoirs, and tanks. As flow measuring devices in open channels, these weirs are placed perpendicular to the sides and bottoms of straight-approach channels. Considering the complex patterns of flow passing over circular sharp-crested weirs, an equation having experimental correlation coefficients was used to extract a stage-discharge relation for weirs. Assuming the occurrence of critical flow over the weir crest, a theoretical stage-discharge relation was obtained in this study by solving two extracted non-linear equations. To study the precision of the theoretical stage-discharge relation, 58 experiments were performed on six circular weirs with different diameters and crest heights in a 30 cm-wide flume. The results show that, for each stage above the weirs, the theoretically calculated discharge is less than the measured discharge, and this difference increases with the stage. Finally, the theoretical stage-discharge relation was modified by exerting a correction coefficient which is a function of the ratio of the upstream flow depth to the weir crest height. The results show that the modified stage-discharge relation is in good agreement with the measured results.
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Volume 14,Issue 3, Sep. 2021

Editor-in-ChiefChao Wang

Edited byEditorial Board of Water Science and Engineering

Distributed byEditorial Office of Water Science and Engineering