Letters and Communications
Abstract:
Although big data is publicly available on water quality parameters, virtual simulation has not yet been adequately adapted in environmental chemistry research. Digital twin is different from conventional geospatial modeling approaches and is particularly useful when systematic laboratory/field experiment is not realistic (e.g., climate impact and water-related environmental catastrophe) or difficult to design and monitor in a real time (e.g., pollutant and nutrient cycles in estuaries, soils, and sediments). Data-driven water research could realize early warning and disaster readiness simulations for diverse environmental scenarios, including drinking water contamination.
Water Resources
Abstract:
Suzhou City, located in the Yangtze River Delta in China, is prone to flooding due to a complex combination of natural factors, including its monsoon climate, low elevation, and tidally influenced position, as well as intensive human activities. The Large Encirclement Flood Control Project (LEFCP) was launched to cope with serious floods in the urban area. This project changed the spatiotemporal pattern of flood processes and caused spatial diversion of floods from the urban area to the outskirts of the city. Therefore, this study developed a distributed flood simulation model in order to understand this transition of flood processes. The results revealed that the LEFCP effectively protected the urban areas from floods, but the present scheduling schemes resulted in the spatial diversion of floods to the outskirts of the city. With rainstorm frequencies of 10.0 % to 0.5 %, the water level differences between two representative water level stations (Miduqiao (MDQ) and Fengqiao (FQ)) located inside and outside the LEFCP area, ranged from 0.75 m to 0.24 m and from 1.80 m to 1.58 m, respectively. In addition, the flood safety margin at MDQ and the duration with the water level exceeding the warning water level at FQ ranged from 0.95 m to 0.43 m and from 4 h to 22 h, respectively. Rational scheduling schemes for the hydraulic facilities of the LEFCP in extreme precipitation cases were developed according to flood simulations under seven scheduling scenarios. This helps to regulate the spatial flood diversion caused by the LEFCP during extreme precipitation.
Aquatic Environment
Abstract:
Constructed wetlands (CW) are well known nature-based systems for water treatment. This study evaluated the efficiency and effectiveness of seven domestic wastewater treatment systems based on horizontal flow CWs in Jarabacoa, the Dominican Republic. The results showed that the CWs were efficient in reducing the degree of contamination of wastewater to levels below the Dominican wastewater discharge standards for parameters such as the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand, but not for the removal of phosphorus and fecal coliforms. In addition, a horizontal flow subsurface wetland in the peri-urban area El Dorado was evaluated in terms of the performance of wastewater treatment in tropical climatic conditions. The concentrations of heavy metals, such as zinc, copper, chromium, and iron, were found to decrease in the effluent of the wetland, and the concentrations for nickel and manganese tended to increase. The levels of heavy metals in the effluent were lower than the limit values of the Dominican wastewater discharge standards. The construction cost of these facilities was around 200 USD per population equivalent, similar to the cost in other countries in the same region. This study suggested some solutions to the improved performance of CWs:selection of a microbial flora that guarantees the reduction of nitrates and nitrites to molecular nitrogen, use of endemic plants that bioaccumulate heavy metals, combination of constructed wetlands with filtration on activated carbon, and inclusion of water purification processes that allow to evaluate the reuse of treated water.
Abstract:
Coastal wetlands are hotspots for nitrogen (N) cycling, and crab burrowing is known to transform N in intertidal marsh soils. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study conducted field experiments and used indoor control test devices to investigate the seasonal response of nitrogen to crab disturbance at the sediment-water interface in coastal tidal flat wetlands. The results showed that crab disturbance exhibited significant seasonality with large seasonal differences in cave density and depth. Due to crab disturbance, nitrogen fluxes at the sediment-water interface were much greater in the box with crabs than in the box without crabs. In summer, NH4+-N showed a positive flux from the sediment to the overlying water, but NO2--N and NO3--N showed positive fluxes from the sediment to the overlying water only in early stages. In winter, NH4+-N showed a positive flux from the sediment to the overlying water, but NO2--N and NO3--N both exhibited positive and negative fluxes. These results indicated that the presence of crab burrows can cause the aerobic layer to move downward by approximately 8-15 cm in summer and directly promote nitrification at the sediment surface.
Abstract:
Three-dimensional (3D) porous absorbents have attracted significant attention in the oily wastewater treatment technology due to their high porosity and elasticity. Given their amphiphilic surface, they have a propensity to simultaneously absorb water and oil, which restricts their range of applications. In this study, a reduced graphene oxide and titanium dioxide nanocomposite (rGO/TiO2) was used to fabricate an ultrahydrophobic melamine sponge (MS) through interfacial modification using a solution immersion technique. To further modify it, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was grafted onto its surface to establish stronger covalent bonds with the composite. The water contact angle of the sponge (rGO/TiO2/PDMS/MS) was 164.2°, which satisfies the condition for ultrahydrophobicity. The evidence of its water repellency was demonstrated by the Cassie-Baxter theory and the lotus leaf effect. As a result of the increased density of rGO/TiO2/PDMS/MS, it recorded an initial capacity that was 2 g/g lower than the raw MS for crude oil absorption. The raw MS retained 53 % of its initial absorption capacity after 20 cycles of absorption, while rGO/TiO2/PDMS/MS retained 97 %, suggesting good recyclability. Excellent oil and organic solvent recovery (90 %-96 %) was demonstrated by rGO/TiO2/PDMS/MS in oil-water combinations. In a continuous separation system, it achieved a remarkable separation efficiency of 2.4×106 L/(m3·h), and in turbulent emulsion separation, it achieved a demulsification efficiency of 90 %-91 %. This study provides a practical substitute for massive oil spill cleaning.
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Urban and river flooding: Comparison of flood risk management approaches in the UK and China and an assessment of future knowledge needs
Matteo Rubinato, Andrew Nichols, Yong Peng, Jian-min Zhang, Craig Lashford, Yan-peng Cai, Peng-zhi Lin, Simon Tait
2019, 12(4): 274-283.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2019.12.004
[Abstract](982) [PDF 388KB](1008)
摘要:
Increased urbanisation, economic growth, and long-term climate variability have made both the UK and China more susceptible to urban and river flooding, putting people and property at increased risk. This paper presents a review of the current flooding challenges that are affecting the UK and China and the actions that each country is undertaking to tackle these problems. Particular emphases in this paper are laid on (1) learning from previous flooding events in the UK and China, and (2) which management methodologies are commonly used to reduce flood risk. The paper concludes with a strategic research plan suggested by the authors, together with proposed ways to overcome identified knowledge gaps in flood management. Recommendations briefly comprise the engagement of all stakeholders to ensure a proactive approach to land use planning, early warning systems, and water-sensitive urban design or redesign through more effective policy, multi-level flood models, and data driven models of water quantity and quality.
Improvement of wind field hindcasts for tropical cyclones
Yi Pan, Yong-ping Chen, Jiang-xia Li, Xue-lin Ding
2016, 9(1): 58-66.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2016.02.002
[Abstract](1805) [PDF 9190KB](2416)
摘要:
This paper presents a study on the improvement of wind field hindcasts for two typical tropical cyclones, i.e., Fanapi and Meranti, which occurred in 2010. The performance of the three existing models for the hindcasting of cyclone wind fields is first examined, and then two modification methods are proposed to improve the hindcasted results. The first one is the superposition method, which superposes the wind field calculated from the parametric cyclone model on that obtained from the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) reanalysis data. The radius used for the superposition is based on an analysis of the minimum difference between the two wind fields. The other one is the direct modification method, which directly modifies the CCMP reanalysis data according to the ratio of the measured maximum wind speed to the reanalyzed value as well as the distance from the cyclone center. Using these two methods, the problem of underestimation of strong winds in reanalysis data can be overcome. Both methods show considerable improvements in the hindcasting of tropical cyclone wind fields, compared with the cyclone wind model and the reanalysis data.
Characterization of cobalt ferrite-supported activated carbon for removal of chromium and lead ions from tannery wastewater via adsorption equilibrium
Muibat Diekola Yahya, Kehinde Shola Obayomi, Mohammed Bello Abdulkadir, Yahaya Ahmed Iyaka, Adeola Grace Olugbenga
2020, 13(3): 202-213.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2020.09.007
[Abstract](803) [PDF 2667KB](546)
摘要:
In this experiment, cobalt ferrite-supported activated carbon (CF-AC) was developed and characterized via the wet impregnation method for the removal of Cr and Pb(II) ions from tannery wastewater. Batch adsorption was carried out to evaluate the effect of experimental operating conditions (pH of solution, contact time, adsorbent dose, and temperature), and the removal efficiencies of Cr and Pb(II) ions by the developed adsorbents were calculated and recorded for all experimental conditions. These variables were estimated and reported as removal efficiencies of 98.2% for Cr and 96.4% for Pb(II) ions at the optimal conditions of 5, 0.8 g, 80 min, and 333 K for pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and temperature, respectively. The equilibrium for the sorption of Cr and Pb(II) ions was studied using four widely used isotherm models (the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Temkin isotherm models). It was found that the Freundlich isotherm model fit better with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.948 4 and a small sum of square error of 0.000 6. The maximum adsorption capacities (Qm) of Pb(II) and Cr adsorbed onto CF-AC were determined to be 6.27 and 23.6 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption process conformed well to pseudo-second order kinetics as revealed by the high R2 values obtained for both metals. The thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption of Cr and Pb(II) ions onto CF-AC was spontaneous, feasible, and endothermic under the studied conditions. The mean adsorption energy (E) values revealed that the adsorption mechanism of Cr and Pb(II) by CF-AC is physical in nature. The results of the study showed that adsorbent developed from CF-AC can be efficiently used as an environmentally friendly alternative adsorbent, for removal of Cr and Pb(II) ions in tannery wastewater.
Performance assessment of two-dimensional hydraulic models for generation of flood inundation maps in mountain river basins
Juan Pinos, Luis Timbe
2019, 12(1): 11-18.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2019.03.001
[Abstract](704) [PDF 2519KB](572)
摘要:
Hydraulic models for the generation of ?ood inundation maps are not commonly applied in mountain river basins because of the dif?culty in modeling the hydraulic behavior and the complex topography. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the performance of four twodimensional hydraulic models (HEC-RAS 2D, Iber 2D, Flood Modeller 2D, and PCSWMM 2D) with respect to the generation of ?ood inundation maps. The study area covers a 5-km reach of the Santa Barbara River located in the Ecuadorian Andes, at 2330 masl, in Gualaceo. The model's performance was evaluated based on the water surface elevation and ?ood extent, in terms of the mean absolute difference and measure of ?t. The analysis revealed that, for a given case, Iber 2D has the best performance in simulating the water level and inundation for ?ood events with 20- and 50-year return periods, respectively, followed by Flood Modeller 2D, HEC-RAS 2D, and PCSWMM 2D in terms of their performance. Grid resolution, the way in which hydraulic structures are mimicked, the model code, and the default value of the parameters are considered the main sources of prediction uncertainty.
Biosorption of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution using modified Aloe barbadensis Miller leaf powder
Shweta Gupta, S. K. Sharma, Arinjay Kumar
2019, 12(1): 27-36.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2019.04.003
[Abstract](708) [PDF 1653KB](587)
摘要:
This study aimed to investigate the biosorption potential of Na2CO3-modified Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) leaf (MABL) powder for removal of Ni(II) ions from a synthetic aqueous solution. Effects of various process parameters (pH, equilibrium time, and temperature) were investigated in order to optimize the biosorptive removal. The maximum biosorption capacity of MABL was observed to be 28.986 mg/g at a temperature of 303 K, a biosorbent dose of 0.6 g, a contact time of 90 min, and a pH value of 7. Different kinetic models (the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models) were evaluated. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found to be the best fitted model in this study, with a coefficient of determination of R2 = 0.974. Five different isotherm models (the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) models) were investigated to identify the best-suited isotherm model for the present system. Based on the minimum chi-square value (χ2 = 0.027) and the maximum coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.996), the Langmuir isotherm model was found to represent the system well, indicating the possibility of monolayer biosorption. The sticking probability (S*) was found to be 0.41, suggesting a physisorption mechanism for biosorption of Ni(II) on MABL. The biosorbent was characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential, and BET surface area, in order to understand its morphological and functional characteristics.
Application of SWAN+ADCIRC to tide-surge and wave simulation in Gulf of Maine during Patriot’s Day storm
Dong-mei Xie, Qing-ping Zou, John W. Cannon
2016, 9(1): 33-41.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2016.02.003
[Abstract](1686) [PDF 8393KB](1640)
摘要:
The southern coast of the Gulf of Maine in the United States is prone to flooding caused by nor’easters. A state-of-the-art fully-coupled model, the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) model with unstructured grids and the ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) model, was used to study the hydrodynamic response in the Gulf of Maine during the Patriot’s Day storm of 2007, a notable example of nor’easters in this area. The model predictions agree well with the observed tide-surges and waves during this storm event. Waves and circulation in the Gulf of Maine were analyzed. The Georges Bank plays an important role in dissipating wave energy through the bottom friction when waves propagate over the bank from offshore to the inner gulf due to its shallow bathymetry. Wave energy dissipation results in decreasing significant wave height (SWH) in the cross-bank direction and wave radiation stress gradient, which in turn induces changes in currents. While the tidal currents are dominant over the Georges Bank and in the Bay of Fundy, the residual currents generated by the meteorological forcing and waves are significant over the Georges Bank and in the coastal area and can reach 0.3 m/s and 0.2 m/s, respectively. In the vicinity of the coast, the longshore current generated by the surface wind stress and wave radiation stress acting parallel to the coastline is inversely proportional to the water depth and will eventually be limited by the bottom friction. The storm surge level reaches 0.8 m along the western periphery of the Gulf of Maine while the wave set-up due to radiation stress variation reaches 0.2 m. Therefore, it is significant to coastal flooding.
Evaluation of latest TMPA and CMORPH satellite precipitation products for Yellow River Basin
Shan-hu Jiang, Meng Zhou, Li-liang Ren, Xue-rong Cheng, Peng-ju Zhang
2016, 9(2): 87-96.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2016.06.002
[Abstract](1603) [PDF 8704KB](3209)
摘要:
The main objective of this study was to evaluate four latest global high-resolution satellite precipitation products (TMPA 3B42RT, CMORPH, TMPA 3B42V7, and CMORPH_adj) against gauge observations of the Yellow River Basin from March 2000 to December 2012. The assessment was conducted with several commonly used statistical indices at daily and monthly scales. Results indicate that 3B42V7 and CMORPH_adj perform better than the near real-time products (3B42RT and CMORPH), particularly the 3B42V7 product. The adjustment by gauge data significantly reduces the systematic biases in the research products. Regarding the near real-time datasets, 3B42RT overestimates rainfall over the whole basin, while CMORPH presents a mixed pattern with negative and positive values of relative bias in low- and high-latitude regions, respectively, and CMORPH performs better than 3B42RT on the whole. According to the spatial distribution of statistical indices, these values are optimized in the southeast and decrease toward the northwest, and the trend is similar for the spatial distribution of the mean annual precipitation during the period from 2000 to 2012. This study also reveals that all the four products can effectively detect rainfall events. This study provides useful information about four mainstream satellite products in the Yellow River Basin, and the findings can facilitate the use of global precipitation measurement (GPM) data in the future.
Assessment of physicochemical properties of water and their seasonal variation in an urban river in Bangladesh
Arafat Rahman, Ishrat Jahanara, Yeasmin Nahar Jolly
2021, 14(2): 139-148.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2021.06.006
[Abstract](94) [FullText HTML](41) [PDF 2203KB](518)
摘要:
To assess the magnitude of water quality decline in the Turag River of Bangladesh, this study examined the seasonal variation of physicochemical parameters of water, identified potential pollution sources, and clustered the monitoring months with similar characteristics. Water samples were collected in four distinct seasons to evaluate temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), electrical conductivity (EC), chloride ion (Cl) concentration, total alkalinity (TA), turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration, total suspended solids (TSS) concentration, and total hardness (TH) using standard methods. The analytical results revealed that 40% of water quality indices were within the permissible limits suggested by different agencies, with the exception of EC, Cl concentration, TA, turbidity, DO concentration, BOD5, and COD in all seasons. Statistical analyses indicated that 52% of the contrasts were significantly different at a 95% confidence interval. The factor analysis presented the best fit among the parameters, with four factors explaining 94.29% of the total variance. TDS, BOD5, COD, EC, turbidity, DO, and Cl were mainly responsible for pollution loading and were caused by the significant amount of industrial discharge and toxicological compounds. The cluster analysis showed the seasonal change in surface water quality, which is usually an indicator of pollution from rainfall or other sources. However, the values of different physicochemical properties varied with seasons, and the highest values of pollutants were recorded in the winter. With the change in seasonal temperature and increase in rainfall, the seasonal Turag River water followed a self-refining trend as follows: rainy season > pre-winter > summer > winter.
Modeling river water quality parameters using modified adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system
Armin Azad, Hojat Karami, Saeed Farzin, Sayed-Farhad Mousavi, Ozgur Kisi
2019, 12(1): 45-54.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2018.11.001
[Abstract](593) [PDF 1344KB](538)
摘要:
Water quality is always one of the most important factors in human health. Artificial intelligence models are respected methods for modeling
water quality. The evolutionary algorithm (EA) is a new technique for improving the performance of artificial intelligence models such as the
adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and artificial neural networks (ANN). Attempts have been made to make the models more
suitable and accurate with the replacement of other training methods that do not suffer from some shortcomings, including a tendency to being
trapped in local optima or voluminous computations. This study investigated the applicability of ANFIS with particle swarm optimization (PSO)
and ant colony optimization for continuous domains (ACOR) in estimating water quality parameters at three stations along the Zayandehrood
River, in Iran. The ANFIS-PSO and ANFIS-ACOR methods were also compared with the classic ANFIS method, which uses least squares and
gradient descent as training algorithms. The estimated water quality parameters in this study were electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved
solids (TDS), the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), carbonate hardness (CH), and total hardness (TH). Correlation analysis was performed using
SPSS software to determine the optimal inputs to the models. The analysis showed that ANFIS-PSO was the better model compared with
ANFIS-ACOR. It is noteworthy that EA models can improve ANFIS' performance at all three stations for different water quality parameters.
Using multi-satellite microwave remote sensing observations for retrieval of daily surface soil moisture across China
Ke Zhang, Li-jun Chao, Qing-qing Wang, Ying-chun Huang, Rong-hua Liu, Yang Hong, Yong Tu, Wei Qu, Jin-yin Ye
2019, 12(2): 85-97.   doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2019.06.001
[Abstract](933) [PDF 10109KB](626)
摘要:
    The objective of this study was to retrieve daily composite soil moisture by jointly using brightness temperature observations from multiple operating satellites for near real-time application with better coverage and higher accuracy. Our approach was to first apply the single-channel brightness radiometric algorithm to estimate soil moisture from the respective brightness temperature observations of the SMAP, SMOS, AMSR2, FY3B, and FY3C satellites on the same day and then produce a daily composite dataset by averaging the individual satellite-retrieved soil moisture. We further evaluated our product, the official soil moisture products of the five satellites, and the ensemble mean (i.e., arithmetic mean) of the five official satellite soil moisture products against ground observations from two networks in Central Tibet and Anhui Province, China. The results show that our product outperforms the individual released products of the five satellites and their ensemble means in the two validation areas. The root mean square error (RMSE) values of our product were 0.06 and 0.09 m3/m3 in Central Tibet and Anhui Province, respectively. Relative to the ensemble mean of the five satellite products, our product improves the accuracy by 9.1% and 57.7% in Central Tibet and Anhui Province, respectively. This demonstrates that jointly using brightness temperature observations from multiple satellites to retrieve soil moisture not only improves the spatial coverage of daily observations but also produces better daily composite products.
A simple formula for predicting settling velocity of sediment particles
Song Zhiyao, Wu Tingting, Xu Fumin, Li Ruijie
2008, 1(1): 37-43 .   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2008.01.005
[Abstract](3116) [PDF 124KB](264)
Abstract:
Based on the general relationship described by Cheng between the drag coefficient and the Reynolds number of a particle, a new relationship between the Reynolds number and a dimensionless particle parameter is proposed. Using a trial-and-error procedure to minimize errors, the coefficients were determined and a formula was developed for predicting the settling velocity of natural sediment particles. This formula has higher prediction accuracy than other published formulas and it is applicable to all Reynolds numbers less than 2×105.
Calculation of passive earth pressure of cohesive soil  based on Culmann’s method
Hai-feng LU, Bao-yuan YUAN
2011, 4(1): 101-109.   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2011.01.010
[Abstract](3915) [PDF 429KB](242)
Abstract:
Based on the sliding plane hypothesis of Coulumb earth pressure theory, a new method for calculation of the passive earth pressure of cohesive soil was constructed with Culmann’s graphical construction. The influences of the cohesive force, adhesive force, and the fill surface form were considered in this method. In order to obtain the passive earth pressure and sliding plane angle, a program based on the sliding surface assumption was developed with the VB.NET programming language. The calculated results from this method were basically the same as those from the Rankine theory and Coulumb theory formulas. This method is conceptually clear, and the corresponding formulas given in this paper are simple and convenient for application when the fill surface form is complex.   
Modeling atrazine transport in soil columns with HYDRUS-1D
John Leju CELESTINO LADU, Dan-rong ZHANG
2011, 4(3): 258-269.   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2011.03.003
[Abstract](3294) [PDF 434KB](229)
Abstract:
Both physical and chemical processes affect the fate and transport of herbicides. It is useful to simulate these processes with computer programs to predict solute movement. Simulations were run with HYDRUS-1D to identify the sorption and degradation parameters of atrazine through calibration from the breakthrough curves (BTCs). Data from undisturbed and disturbed soil column experiments were compared and analyzed using the dual-porosity model. The study results show that the values of dispersivity are slightly lower in disturbed columns, suggesting that the more heterogeneous the structure is, the higher the dispersivity. Sorption parameters also show slight variability, which is attributed to the differences in soil properties, experimental conditions and methods, or other ecological factors. For both of the columns, the degradation rates were similar. Potassium bromide was used as a conservative non-reactive tracer to characterize the water movement in columns. Atrazine BTCs exhibited significant tailing and asymmetry, indicating non-equilibrium sorption during solute transport. The dual-porosity model was verified to best fit the BTCs of the column experiments. Greater or lesser concentration of atrazine spreading to the bottom of the columns indicated risk of groundwater contamination. Overall, HYDRUS-1D successfully simulated the atrazine transport in soil columns.
Analysis of dynamic wave model for flood routing in natural rivers
Reza BARATI, Sajjad RAHIMI, Gholam Hossein AKBARI
2012, 5(3): 243-258.   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2012.03.001
[Abstract](3660) [PDF 423KB](246)
Abstract:
 Flooding is a common natural disaster that causes enormous economic, social, and human losses. Of various flood routing methods, the dynamic wave model is one of the best approaches for the prediction of the characteristics of floods during their propagations in natural rivers because all of the terms of the momentum equation are considered in the model. However, no significant research has been conducted on how the model sensitivity affects the accuracy of the downstream hydrograph. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the input parameters of the dynamic wave model was performed through field applications in natural rivers and routing experiments in artificial channels using the graphical multi-parametric sensitivity analysis (GMPSA). The results indicate that the effects of input parameter errors on the output results are more significant in special situations, such as lower values of Manning’s roughness coefficient and/or a steeper bed slope on the characteristics of a design hydrograph, larger values of the skewness factor and/or time to peak on the channel characteristics, larger values of Manning’s roughness coefficient and/or the bed slope on the space step, and lower values of Manning’s roughness coefficient and/or a steeper bed slope on the time step and weighting factor.
Orifice plate cavitation mechanism and its influencing factors
Wan-zheng AI, Tian-ming DING
2010, 3(3): 321-330.   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2010.03.008
[Abstract](3716) [PDF 283KB](193)
Abstract:
The orifice plate energy dissipater is an economic and highly efficient dissipater. However, there is a risk of cavitaion around the orifice plate flow. In order to provide references for engineering practice, we examined the cavitation mechanism around the orifice plate and its influencing factors by utilizing mathematical analysis methods to analyze the flow conditions around the orifice plate in view of gas bubble dynamics. Through the research presented in this paper, the following can be observed: The critical radius and the critical pressure of the gas nucleus in orifice plate flow increase with its initial state parameter ; the development speed of bubbles stabilizes at a certain value after experiencing a peak value and a small valley value; and the orifice plate cavitation is closely related to the distribution of the gas nucleus in flow. For computing the orifice plate cavitation number, we ought to take into account the effects of pressure fluctuation. The development time of the gas nucleus from the initial radius to the critical radius is about 10-7-10-5 s; therefore, the gas nucleus has sufficient time to develop into bubbles in the negative half-cycle of flow fluctuation. The orifice critical cavitation number is closely related to the orifice plate size, and especially closely related with the ratio of the orifice plate radius to the tunnel radius. The approximate formula for the critical cavitation number of the square orifice plate that only considers the main influencing factor was obtained by model experiments.
Modified theoretical stage-discharge relation for circular sharp-crested weirs
Rasool GHOBADIAN, Ensiyeh MERATIFASHI
2012, 5(1): 26-33.   doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2012.01.003
[Abstract](3350) [PDF 313KB](245)
Abstract:
A circular sharp-crested weir is a circular control section used for measuring flow in open channels, reservoirs, and tanks. As flow measuring devices in open channels, these weirs are placed perpendicular to the sides and bottoms of straight-approach channels. Considering the complex patterns of flow passing over circular sharp-crested weirs, an equation having experimental correlation coefficients was used to extract a stage-discharge relation for weirs. Assuming the occurrence of critical flow over the weir crest, a theoretical stage-discharge relation was obtained in this study by solving two extracted non-linear equations. To study the precision of the theoretical stage-discharge relation, 58 experiments were performed on six circular weirs with different diameters and crest heights in a 30 cm-wide flume. The results show that, for each stage above the weirs, the theoretically calculated discharge is less than the measured discharge, and this difference increases with the stage. Finally, the theoretical stage-discharge relation was modified by exerting a correction coefficient which is a function of the ratio of the upstream flow depth to the weir crest height. The results show that the modified stage-discharge relation is in good agreement with the measured results.
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Volume 17,Issue 2, Jun. 2024

Editor-in-ChiefChao Wang

Edited byEditorial Board of Water Science and Engineering

Distributed byEditorial Office of Water Science and Engineering