Volume 5 Issue 2
Jun.  2012
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Shalamu ABUDU, Chun-liang CUI, Muattar SAYDI, James Phillip KING. 2012: Application of snowmelt runoff model (SRM) in mountainous watersheds: A review. Water Science and Engineering, 5(2): 123-136. doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2012.02.001
Citation: Shalamu ABUDU, Chun-liang CUI, Muattar SAYDI, James Phillip KING. 2012: Application of snowmelt runoff model (SRM) in mountainous watersheds: A review. Water Science and Engineering, 5(2): 123-136. doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2012.02.001

Application of snowmelt runoff model (SRM) in mountainous watersheds: A review

doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2012.02.001
Funds:  the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51069017), the Special Fund for Public Welfare Industry of Ministry of Water Resources of China (Grant No. 201001065), the Open-End Fund of Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang University (Grant No. XJDX0206-2010-03), and the Open-End Fund of the China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (Grant No. IWHR-SKL-201104).
More Information
  • Corresponding author: Shalamu ABUDU
  • Received Date: 2011-04-21
  • Rev Recd Date: 2012-02-14
  • The snowmelt runoff model (SRM) has been widely used in simulation and forecast of streamflow in snow-dominated mountainous basins around the world. This paper presents an overall review of worldwide applications of SRM in mountainous watersheds, particularly in data-sparse watersheds of northwestern China. Issues related to proper selection of input climate variables and parameters, and determination of the snow cover area (SCA) using remote sensing data in snowmelt runoff modeling are discussed through extensive review of literature. Preliminary applications of SRM in northwestern China have shown that the model accuracies are relatively acceptable although most of the watersheds lack measured hydro-meteorological data. Future research could explore the feasibility of modeling snowmelt runoff in data-sparse mountainous watersheds in northwestern China by utilizing snow and glacier cover remote sensing data, geographic information system (GIS) tools, field measurements, and innovative ways of model parameterization.


  • loading
  • Abudu, S., Cui, C., King, J. P., and Abudukadeer, K. 2010. Comparison of performance of statistical models in forecasting monthly streamflow of Kizil River, China. Water Science and Engineering, 3(3), 269-281. [doi:10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2010.03.003]Adam, J. C., Hamlet, A. F., and Lettenmaier, D. P. 2009. Implications of global climate change for snowmelt hydrology in the twenty-first century. Hydrological Processes, 23(7), 962-972. [doi:10.1002/hyp.7201]
    Baumgartner, M. F., and Apfl, G. M. 1997. Remote sensing, geographic information systems and snowmelt runoff models: An integrated approach. Baumgartner, M. F., Schultz, G. A., and Johnson, A. I., eds., Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems for Design and Operation of Water Resources Systems, 73-101. Wallingford: International Association of Hydrological Sciences.
    Boudhar, A., Hanich, L., Boulet, G., Duchemin, B., Berjamy, B., and Chehbouni, A. 2009. Evaluation of the snowmelt runoff model in the Moroccan High Atlas Mountains using two snow-cover estimates. Hydrological Science Journal, 54(6), 1094-1113. [doi: 10.1623/hysj.54.6.1094]
    Dey, B., Sharma, V. K., and Rango, A. 1989. A test of snowmelt-runoff model for a major river basin in Western Himalayas. Nordic Hydrology, 20(3), 167-178. [doi: 10.2166/nh.1989.013]
    Dozier, J. 1984. Snow reflectance from Landsat-4 thematic mapper. IEEE Transactions on Geosciences and Remote Sensing, GE-22(3), 323-328. [doi: 10.1109/TGRS.1984.350628]
    Engman, E. T., Rango, A., and Martinec, J. 1989. EXSRM, an expert system for snowmelt runoff model (SRM). New Directions for Surface Water Model (Proceedings of the Baltimore Symposium). Washington, D.C.: International Association of Hydrological Sciences.
    Feng, X. Z., Li, W. J., Shi, Z. T., and Wang, L. H. 2000. Satellite snow cover monitoring and snowmelt runoff simulation of Manas River in Tianshan Region. Remote Sensing Technology and Application, 15(1), 18-21. (in Chinese)
    Hu, R. J. 2004. Physical Geography of the Tianshan Mountain in China. Beijing: China Environmental Science Press. (in Chinese)
    Jesko, S., Martinec, J., and Seidel, K. 1999. Distributed mapping of snow and glaciers for improved runoff modeling. Hydrological Processes, 13(12-13), 2023-2031. [doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(199909)13:12/ 13< 2023::AID-HYP877>3.0.CO;2-A]
    Klein, A. G., and Barnett, A. C. 2003. Validation of daily MODIS snow cover maps of the Upper Rio Grande River Basin for the 2000-2001 snow year. Remote Sensing of Environment, 86(2), 162-176. [doi:10.1016/ S0034-4257(03)00097-X]
    Kumar, V. S., Haefner, H., and Seidel, K. 1991. Satellite snow cover mapping and snowmelt runoff modeling in Beas Basin. Proceedings of the Vienna Symposium on Snow, Hydrology and Forests in High Alpine Areas, 101-109. International Association of Hydrological Sciences.
    Leavesley, G. H. 1989. Problems of snowmelt runoff modeling for a variety of physiographic and climatic conditions. Hydrological Science Journal, 34(6), 617-634. [doi: 10.1080/02626668909491371]
    Li, H. Y., and Wang, J. 2008. The snowmelt runoff model applied in the Upper Heihe River Basin. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 30(5), 769-775. (in Chinese)
    Li, X. G., and Williams, M. W. 2008. Snowmelt runoff modeling in an arid mountain watershed, Tarim Basin, China. Hydrological Processes, 22(19), 3931-3940. [doi: 10.1002/hyp.7098]
    Liu, J. F., Yang, J. P., Chen, R. S., and Yang, Y. 2006. The simulation of snowmelt runoff model in the Dongkemadi River Basin, headwater of the Yangtze River. Acta Geographica Sinica, 61(11), 1149-1159. (in Chinese)
    Liu, W., Li, Z. L., and Li, K. B. 2007. Snowmelt runoff modeling in Tashikuergan River Basin, Xinjiang, China. Technical Supervision in Water Resources, (3), 43-46. (in Chinese)
    Ma, H., and Cheng, G. D. 2003. A test of snowmelt runoff model (SRM) for the Gongnaisi River Basin in the western Tianshan Mountains, China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 48(20), 2253-2259.
    Martinec, J. 1975. Snowmelt runoff model for stream flow forecasts. Nordic Hydrology, 6(3), 145-154. [doi: 10.2166/nh.1975.010]
    Martinec, J., Rango, A., and Roberts, R. T. 2008. Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) User’s Manual, 19-39. New Mexico: New Mexico State University Press.
    Nagler, T., Rott, H., Malcher, P., and Müller, F. 2008. Assimilation of meteorological and remote sensing data for snowmelt runoff forecasting. Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 1408-1420. [doi:10.1016/j.rse. 2007.07.006]
    Nitin, M. V. 2004. Snowmelt runoff modeling using MODIS in Elaho River Basin, British Columbia. Environmental Informatics Archives, 2, 526-530.
    Poon, S. K. M. 2004. Hydrological Modeling Using MODIS Data for Snow Covered Area in the Northern Boreal Forest of Manitoba. M. E. Dissertation. Alberta: University of Calgary.
    Prasad, V. H., and Roy, P. S. 2005. Estimation of snowmelt runoff in Beas Basin, India. Geocarto International, 20(2), 41-47. [doi: 10.1080/10106040508542344]
    Rango, A., and Martinec, J. 1979. Application of a snowmelt runoff model using Landsat data. Nordic Hydrology, 10(4), 225-238. [doi: 10.2166/nh.1979.015]
    Rango, A., and Martinec, J. 1981. Accuracy of snowmelt runoff simulation. Nordic Hydrology, 12(4-5), 265-274. [doi: 10.2166/nh.1981.021]
    Rango, A. 1983. Application of simple snowmelt runoff model to large river basin. Proceedings of the Fifty-first Annual Western Snow Conference, 89-99. Fort Collins: Colorado State University.
    Rango, A., Martinec, J., and Roberts, R. T. 2008. Relative importance of glacier contributions to water supply in a changing climate. World Resources Review, 20(3), 487-503.
    Richard, C., and Gratton, D. J. 2001. The importance of the air temperature variable for the snowmelt runoff modelling using the SRM. Hydrological Processes, 15(18), 3357-3370.
    Seidel, K., Ehrler, C., and Martinec, J. 1998. Effects of climate change on water resources and runoff in an alpine basin. Hydrological Processes, 12(10-11), 1659-1669. [doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(199808/09) 12:10/11<1659::AID-HYP687>3.0.CO;2-4]
    Seidel, K., Martinec, J., and Baumgartner, M. F. 2000. Modeling runoff and impact of climate change in large Himalayan basins. Proceedings of the International Conference on Integrated Water Resources Management for Sustainable Development (ICIWRM-2000). International Association of Hydrological Sciences.
    Tekeli, A. E., Akyurek, Z., ?orman, A. A., ?ensoy, A., and Sorman, A. U. 2005. Using MODIS snow cover maps in modeling snowmelt runoff process in the eastern part of Turkey. Remote Sensing of Environment, 97(2), 216-230.
    World Meteorological Organization (WMO). 1986. Intercomparison of Models of Snowmelt Runoff (Operational Hydrology Report). Geneva: Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization.
    Xu, C. Y., and Singh, V. P. 1998. A review on monthly water balance models for water resources investigations. Water Resources Management, 12(1), 20-50. [doi: 10.1023/A:1007916816469]
    Zhang, P., Wang, J., Liu, Y., and Li, Y. 2009. Application of SRM to flood forecast and forewarning of Manasi River Basin in Spring. Remote Sensing Technology and Application, 24(4), 456-461. (in Chinese)
    Zhang, Y. C., Li, B. L., Bao, A. M., Zhou, C. H., Chen, X., and Zhang, X. R. 2006. Simulation of snowmelt runoff model in the Kaidu River Basin. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 36(s2), 24-32. (in Chinese)
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (3106) PDF downloads(7246) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint